PPM Papers Coming Soon

This section contains information about articles which are arleady reviewed, accepted and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Audit fees prediction using fuzzy models

Mahdi Salehi, Accounting Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Mahmoud Lari Dashtbayaz, Accounting Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Masomeh Heydari, M.A. holder in Accounting, Islamic Azad University, Bandarabbas Branch, Iran

Abstract. The current study aims to predict the optimal amount of independent audit fees based on the factors influencing audit fees. To identify the factors influencing audit fees, the stakeholders of 30 auditing firm, member of the Iranian Association of Certified Public Accountants in Tehran selected randomly, were interviewed. Finally, the linear programming model for audit fees and its determinants defined and sum of squared error is used to solve the function with minimum. Also, given that the data are quantitative and comparative and normally distributed, Pearson's correlation coefficient used to test the research hypotheses.
The results show that a positive significant correlation exists between the variables of expected time to perform audit procedures, the number of accounting documents, audit operation risk, complexity of operations, existence of specific rules and regulations governing the activities of the entity.

Conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry: tourism management and advertisement as moderators

Wasib B Latif, Ph.D. Candidate, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Md. Aminul Islam, Associate Professor, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Idris Md. Noor, Associate Professor, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Mahadzirah Mohamad, Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Kritika Kongsompong, Associate Professor, Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration of Chulalongkorn, University Sasa Patasala, Thailand

Abstract. The conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry is a combination of antecedents and moderators that create differential effects on customer response to the tourism marketing of the brand. By constructing a conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry will build a competitive advantage in the tourism marketplace. Indeed, recent trends in modern tourism marketing have changed tremendously, and study of a conceptual framework is increasingly becoming considerable to keep pace with this change. In this conceptual paper, we have summarized the literature on currently prevailing concepts and approaches on brand image for tourism industry.

Assessing service quality in online banking services

Ulas Akkucuk, Bogazici University, Department of Management, Istanbul, Turkey
Behcet Teuman, BIS Solutions, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract. Service quality and the effective measurement of service quality on the Internet have been drawing much attention lately with the increasing use of the World Wide Web. Researchers and managers focus on the construction of scales to measure electronic service quality, which assess customer satisfaction and loyalty as an ultimate goal. E-S-Qual is the most recently developed and popular e-service quality measurement technique on which there are quite a number of research studies. In this study, existing literature on service quality scales and the E-S-Qual scale is reviewed. A modified scale is also proposed suitable for the online banking sector.

Budgetary allocation to agriculture in South Africa: an empirical review from 1994 to 2014

Isaac B. Oluwatayo, Ph.D., Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, School of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, South Africa
Stephen M. Mantsho, Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, School of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, South Africa

Abstract. The agricultural sector is no doubt one of the most important sectors in sub-Saharan Africa, considering its prime place as a livelihood source and employer of the vast majority of residents, especially those in rural areas. In South Africa, for instance, agriculture plays a very significant role despite its declining contributions to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for some years now. This dwindling share of agriculture in the country's GDP could be attributed to a number of factors ranging from changing government policies, declining budgetary allocation to the sector, and aging infrastructure and population growth. It is against this backdrop that a review of the effect of this downward slide in budgetary allocation on the development of the country is considered to be important.

Future entrepreneurs: does the field of study matter? A comparison of students in a South African urban environment

Jean-Marie Mbuya, University of Johannesburg South Africa
Chris Schachtebeck, M.Com., Lecturer, Department of business management, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. South Africa is experiencing high rates of unemployment and poverty, particularly among the youth. Entrepreneurship, and the education of it, is often seen as a solution to this socio-economic issue, yet studies have shown conflicting results on the impact the field of study has on entrepreneurial intent. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the entrepreneurial intention among urban students enrolled for an entrepreneurship qualification versus students who were registered for a non-entrepreneurship related qualification. The article presents quantitative, empirical data collected from 603 students by means of a questionnaire to determine if the field of study has an influence on entrepreneurial intent. The study made use of descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett test in order to discover similarities and differences in entrepreneurial intent in students pursuing entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial qualifications. The results revealed that students view entrepreneurship as a valuable career path, regardless of field of study. Both groups held similar strong positive views and beliefs regarding their intention to pursue this career path. Entrepreneurship students, however, display a marginally higher self-observed personal attitude toward becoming entrepreneurs. Results also showed that family support is an important influencer in entrepreneurial intent among students.

Evaluating the effect of accruals quality, investments anomaly and quality of risk on risk premium (return) of stock of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

Seyed Kazem Ebrahimi, Assistant Professor in Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Ali Bahrami Nasab, Accounting Teacher of Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mehdi Karim, Accounting Student of Master Degree in Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract. Nowadays reaching to economic goals in any society requires public participation, which is only the result of people participation. Investment in stock market is one of people participation methods. So awareness from stock return and its affecting factors is one of anxieties of investors and owners of shares. In this research we evaluated the effective factors on stock return using Fama and French models. So we studied the effect of some factors including accruals quality, anomalies of investments, size factor, market's risk premium factor, and book equity to market equity factor, on stock's risk premium which is representative of stock returns, in 70 listed companies in Tehran stock exchange from 20 March 2003 to 20 March 2014.Results showed that accruals quality and quality of risk had meaningful effect on risk premium, which is representative of stock returns. Results also showed that investment anomaly has no meaningful effect on risk premium and consequently on stock returns.


Tackling Non-Communicable Diseases by a forecasting model for Critical Illness Cover

Maria Russolillo, Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Salerno, Campus Fisciano, Italy

Abstract. Non-Communicable Diseases are the most frequent causes of death in most countries in the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific. In the African Region, there are still more deaths from infectious diseases than NCDs. WHO projections show that NCDs will be responsible for a significantly increased total number of deaths in the next decade (WHO 2014). In this context the market of illness insurance is strongly being developed, allowing policyholders to reduce the financial impact of diseases. Indeed critical illness insurance typically provides a payment of a lump sum in the event of the person insured suffering a condition covered under the policy. In other words the insured receives a fixed sum on the diagnosis of a specified list of critical illnesses. The contract terms may also be structured to pay out regular income cash-flows on the policyholder. In general, since the policy face amount has to be paid on diagnosis, the incidence rates or diagnosis rates have to be accurately estimated. The research is here developed around the following focal and original points:

  • the estimation of the diagnosis rate by means of an analysis by cause of death for obtaining cause-specific diagnosis rates: in particular we model the probability of death by cause as a proxy of the estimate of the diagnosis rates;
  • the cause-specific death rates are modelled by a stratified stochastic model for avoiding the durable problem in literature of the dependence among different causes of death;
  • a fair valuation framework is adopted for pricing a specific product of critical illness insurance.

The analysis is completed by empirical findings.

Confirmatory analysis of the model to measure employee engagement

Lailah Imandin, NWU Potchefstroom Business School, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa & The Management College of South Africa, Durban, South Africa
Christo Bisschoff, NWU Potchefstroom Business School, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Christoff Botha, NWU Potchefstroom Business School, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Abstract. A model to measure the employee engagement was developed by researching historical employee engagement models. These models, consisting of employee engagement constructs and their measuring criteria, have been empirically validated and factorised into seven employee engagement factors. The seven employee engagement factors (of which factor one consists of two sub-factors) were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis to ensure the inclusion of the factors in the validated model to measure employee engagement. The model was also tested for goodness of fit, and the model shows good fit indices with the Comparative Fit Index (0.799), while the good model fit of the secondary fit indices RMSEA (0.078 within a narrow margin of 0.004) and Hoelter (113 at p <= 0.1; 111 at p<= 0.05) also show satisfactory model fit. Management can use the model as diagnostic tool to measure employee engagement and to apply it in managerial decision-making. On the other hand, academics could apply the model to extend their research in employee engagement.

Performance of South African PPPs

Solly Matshonisa Seeletse, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

Abstract. Huge monetary investments are made towards private-public partnerships (PPPs) in an effort to develop South Africa. These PPPs are based on emulations from international benchmarks. Many developed countries benefitted from skillful use of PPPs. The paper was based on concerns that in South Africa, many PPP projects do not reach finalization. Others only reach finalization from additional funding after exhausting initial invested funds. Some causes of barriers of success of these PPPs are reported. Respondents were 39 past PPP participants. A self-administered unstructured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show negligence and wrong deployment as main causes of the failures in which the government side was a grave wrongdoer. Recommendations found to be necessary for improving PPP performance were suggested.

Prospect theory as an explanation for resistance to organizational change: some management implications

Daniel J. Adriaenssen, Research Fellow Århus University, Dept. Psychology
Jon-Arild Johannessen, Ph.D., Professor (Full). Kristiania University College and Nord University Business School, Norway

Abstract. The problem in organizational change projects is that people often resist organizational change. Many change projects in organizations does not reach their goals. The question is why? This paper investigates how prospect theory can be used to explain people's resistance to organizational change. Prospect theory is based on research from Kahneman and Tversky. If we know why people resist organizational change, we as leaders can do something to promote the change project. The objective of this article is to advise managers and leaders on ways of reducing resistance to organizational change. We identify seven propositions that explain how managerial strategies reduce organizational change. We recommend seven measures that may be employed by management to obtain support for projects implementing organizational change.

Optimized consortium formation through cluster analysis

Kgwadi M. Mampana, Ph.D., Department of Statistics, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, South Africa
Solly M. Seeletse, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa
Enoch M. Sithole, Ph.D., Department of Physics, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

Abstract. Some problems cannot be solved optimally and compromises become necessary. In some cases obtaining an optimal solution may require combining algorithms and iterations. This often occurs when the problem is complex and a single procedure does not reach optimality. This paper shows a conglomerate of algorithms iterated in tasks to form an optimal consortium using cluster analysis. Hierarchical methods and distance measures lead the process. Few companies are desirable in optimal consortium formation. However, this study shows that optimization cannot be predetermined based on a specific fixed number of companies. The experiential exercise forms an optimal consortium of four companies from six shortlisted competitors.

Communication privacy management of students in Latvia

Andris Petersons, Dr.sc.soc., Turiba University, Latvia
Ilkhom Khalimzoda, doctoral student, Turiba University, Latvia

Abstract. The lack of communication privacy boundaries among students and the fault of self-disclosure are two main reasons for unforeseen distress, broken relationships and trust, vulnerability and conflicts in universities. Based on S. Petronio's theory of communication privacy management this research investigates the interaction of domestic students and foreign students in Latvia with their peers in order to set up privacy and disclosure boundaries that do not to violate peer privacy, especially in a sensitive multicultural context. In fact, the presence of private information and the willingness to disclose it is often confronted with numerous privacy dilemmas and issues regarding their secureness, especially in universities where peers are young with different cultural backgrounds. This article analyses the privacy management skills of locals and foreigners and reveals how security of information is managed between them stemming from social penetration and communication privacy management theory. Privacy management is significant in facing the dilemma of communication privacy and facilitates solving already existing problems of privacy among students.

The role of individual interpersonal relationships on work performance in the South African retail sector

Isaac Idowu Abe, Bsc Business Admin, MBA., Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Roger B. Mason, Ph.D., MBL, BA, Wholesale & Retail Leadership Chair, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. Partial or non-recognition of the influence of interpersonal relationships at work could impair the growth, diffusion and success of retail business. For instance, South African retailers have been taking advantage of the retail revolution in Africa to reach the rest of the continent with products and services. Therefore, to examine the interpersonal relationships among supervisors and subordinates in this sector for its contribution to individual and organizational outcomes is important. This paper examines the influence of individual interpersonal relationships on employee performance at work. A mixed method approach was adopted and self-reporting questionnaires were administered to 167 supervisors and 144 subordinate workers of four retail companies that participated in the study. The survey instrument contained both closed-ended and open-ended questions to enable a concurrent collection of data. The quantitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22, while qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. It was found that the relationship between interpersonal relationships and employee performance for the supervisors was weak, while a less significant relationship was observed among the variables for the subordinate workers. The qualitative analysis offered explanations for the weakness and dissociation among interpersonal relationships and employee performance.

Contested confines: political risk and the media in South Africa

Mary-Anne Piasecki, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Piet Croucamp, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. The South African private news media industry represents a substantial portion of the overall media industry and the most successful in terms of profit acquired. It is critical however to assess the shareholders and private ownership of the news media industry in order to determine the likely success of investment in this industry. However, additional risk factors need to be considered along with the shareholders and ownership; macro factors such as, legislation and economic stability as well as micro factors such as the restructuring of ownership and transparency within the industry. It is also fundamental that the news media industry of South Africa is assessed through the lens of its historical landscape and transformation and its Fourth Estate responsibilities. Through this assessment it is possible to conclude three likely outcomes of investment in the news media industry. These outcomes are based on the measured growth and current stability of the industry and the South African economy. The most concerning risk for investment is the continued economic downturn of the South African economy and its effect on restructuring of media ownership and a declining profit. This can be coupled with the risk of legislative turnover and executive overreach within the news media industry.

How can we improve the effectiveness of HRM strategy? A model for future research

Adriaensen, D.J. Research Fellow, Århus University, dept. Psychology, Denmark
Jon-Arild Johannessen, Professor (Full), Oslo School of Management and Nord University Business School, Norway
Helene Sætersdal, Associate Professor, Oslo School of Management, Norway

Abstract. Issue: It is unclear what is meant by human resources (HR) practices at various levels: individual (micro); organizational (meso); and general (macro). Objective: An important objective of this article is to develop a model for future research into strategic HR management. Problem for discussion: How can organizations maintain their competitive position with the help of strategic HR management? Research questions: How can we understand strategic HR management at different levels? What knowledge base do we have for strategic HR management? Method: Conceptual generalization Findings: We have developed a typology for the different levels (micro, meso and macro) and the various perspectives: behavioral; resource-based; knowledge-based and dynamic capabilities. We have developed a research model for future research into strategic HR management, which takes account of the particular level and the knowledge perspective that has been applied. At the same time, our model illustrates examples of HR practices at different levels, HR management results, and organizational performance.

Evaluating customer service in banking in the Malawian Public Post Office

Steven K. Msosa, M.Man.Sc.- Marketing, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Marketing and Retail Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
Jeevarathnam P. Govender, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Marketing and Retail Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

Abstract. Achieving service quality has been the goal of many organizations over the past decade. In recent times, the postal business across the world has experienced a sharp decline in the volume of mail due to more efficient alternative channels of communication. The dwindling volumes of mail have made it necessary for public postal operators to diversify into financial services as one way of generating more revenue. However, the influx of many players into the financial service industry has raised the standard of service quality as a tool for business growth and sustainability and as a result, there is no room for mediocre performance. This paper examines customer perceptions of service quality in the Malawian public postal service. A survey comprising a sample of 400 financial services customers was conducted using the SERVPERF model as the measuring instrument. The results show that customer perceptions of the service quality dimensions are satisfactory. There were significant differences between education level and the perceptions of tangibles and reliability and between region and the perception of tangibles. There were no significant differences between gender, age and occupation and the perception of empathy, tangibles, assurance, reliability and responsiveness. Recommendations are proposed on how the public postal operator can improve service quality among its financial services customers. This study can prove useful as a basis for comparison of customer service quality by providers of banking services in other under-developed countries.