PPM Papers Coming Soon

This section contains information about articles under review and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Entrepreneurial knowledge, personal attitudes, and entrepreneurship intentions among South African Enactus students

Ndivhuho Tshikovhi, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
Richard Shambare, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. This paper investigates how action-based entrepreneurship training influences entrepreneurial knowledge and personal attitudes, which in turn reportedly develop individuals' entrepreneurship intentions. A cohort of students who had undergone social entrepreneurship training under the auspices of Enactus South Africa was studied to determine the relationship between these three key variables associated with entrepreneurship tendencies. The study, in particular, addresses the question of whether practical entrepreneurship training bears any consequences on developing students' personal attitudes, entrepreneurship knowledge, and entrepreneurship intentions. Stratified sampling techniques were utilised to collect data from 355 Enactus South Africa students from the constituent 27 colleges and universities that make up Enactus South Africa. While findings of the study indicated that both entrepreneurial knowledge and personal attitudes have significant influence on entrepreneurship intentions, personal attitudes were observed as having a greater influence on the former. Furthermore, high levels of entrepreneurship knowledge were observed to impact on favourable attitudes towards entrepreneurship.

A methodological framework to study the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture: on example of spiritual leadership

Irena Bakanauskiene, Ph.D., Professor; Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
Rasa Katiliene, Ph.D., Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania

Abstract. The scope and place of modern-day changes pose new challenges for the management of people as organizational resources, requiring particular focus on effective leadership. A structural theoretical approach shows that leaders have a strong influence on the organization's members' perception and behavior through values, views, and assumptions of the leader is the one of the organization's culture features influencing variables. Knowing the features of an organization's culture, shaping business considerations, employees can reveal patterns of behavior. Thus the article suggests a methodological framework, how to identify leadership style influence to organizational culture features. The methodological framework for the study of the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture is illustrated through an example of spiritual leadership based on empirical research, made in Lithuania 2009-2014 year. The topic starts with the theoretical background and analysis of the problem, then the methodology framework for empirical research of the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture is presented and the evidence of research methodology is illustrated on the expression of a spiritual leadership style in organizational culture. Mentioned objects are described in details in previous researches done by authors in 2010-2014. At the end of the article discussion and conclusions are formulated.

Technical efficiency and its determinants: an empirical study on banking sector of Oman

Dharmendra Singh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Modern College of Business and Science, Oman
Bashir Ahmad Fida, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Modern College of Business and Science, Oman

Abstract. The present study aims to investigates the degree of technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies in commercial banks of Oman by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. For the period under study, the contribution of scale inefficiency in overall technical inefficiency has been observed to be higher than pure technical inefficiency .The results related to returns-to-scale emphasize that decreasing returns-to-scale is the major form of scale inefficiency. Study shows that Bank Dhofar and Ahli Bank are consistent in their performance as they are the two most efficient banks throughout the period. Bank Muscat, the largest bank of Oman is suffering from decreasing returns-to-scale. The estimated efficiency scores are further regressed (using tobit model) on a set of explanatory variables, i.e. bank size, profitability, capital adequacy and liquidity. Study reveals that bank size is insignificant; profitability and liquidity are significant positive explanatory variables.

The analysis of labor fluctuation in the Nitra Region of Slovakia

Renáta Machová, Ph.D., Vice Dean, Assistant Professor, J. Selye University, Slovakia
Silvia Tóbiás Kosár, Assistant Professor, J. Selye University, Slovakia
József Poór, Professor, Dr., J. Selye University, Slovakia
Andrej Hevesi, Assistant, J. Selye University, Slovakia

Abstract. Fluctuation in the labor force has been the subject of numerous recently published studies and literature. This study presents the characteristics of the theoretical and practical problems of fluctuation. Our goal is to present the characteristics of labor fluctuation in a selected region via an empirical research conducted among companies. We analyzed fluctuation in different occupational groups, the key characteristics of key-person migration and replacement, the costs of replacing labor, workplace policies and programs relating to the conservation of staff separately. During the examination process of fluctuation problems it was also important for us to separate the analysis of motivational tools used to prevent employee turnover. The study summarizes the specific features of the analyzed factors.

Leadership and transformation in a South African university

Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu, Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa
Damtew Teferra, University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), South Africa

Abstract. Politicized South African higher education institutions (HEIs) have influenced leaders to be indecisive, error free, fearful of taking risks, marginalizing resisters, emotional and failing to recognize their personal weaknesses while working well with leaders beyond the university. This study interrogates leaders' capabilities that have the potential to drive transformation at the Durban University of Technology (DUT) in the post-merger and incorporation era. The researcher undertook this study to highlight the prevalence of leadership incapability in the post-merger and incorporation era at DUT which has mainly been caused by leaders failing to take transformative decisions. This study employed a quantitative approach guided by a structured survey questionnaire to a target population of 191 with a response rate of 70%. The questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS generating the reliability coefficient Alpha of 0.947 indicating a high degree of acceptance and consistency of the results. The study findings revealed the highest percentage of the research participants who held opposite views regarding the statement that leaders learn from their mistakes (32%) and that they understand their personal weaknesses (27%), with the highest percentage being undecided (46%). Another major highlight of the study was the highest percentage of the respondents who had a view that leaders work well with other leaders beyond the university (55%) as compared to internal stakeholders (49%). Researchers mention leadership capabilities as only being applicable to higher education institutions in general. This study provides information on leaders' incapability, post-merger and incorporation, which could be of benefit to the university change management specialists in the design of relevant and specific interventions of change with the aim of filling the gaps or preventing bottlenecks identified by the findings. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge in developing countries as there is a dearth of published studies investigating leadership capabilities mishaps in the post-merger and incorporation era at the Universities of Technology.

Do foreign remittances encourage investment in the rural non-farm economy sector? Evidence from Igbos of Southeast Nigeria

Emmanuel Innocents Edoun, Ph.D., Department of Quality and Operations Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Samuel Ezeanyika Ezeanyika, Ph.D., Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imo State University, Nigeria
Charles Mbohwa, Ph.D., Department of Quality and Operations Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. In recent years, foreign remittances have become a major source of external development finance. In the past decade, Nigeria has become the single largest recipient of foreign remittances in Sub-Saharan Africa, receiving between 30 to 60 percent of flows into the region. However, because of the conventional view that the bulk of household income from foreign remittances is used particularly for consumption purposes, their deliberate investment by some recipients in the rural nonfarm economy (RNFE) has not yet undergone rigorous econometric analyzes. The thrust of this paper is to estimate the impact of foreign remittances on the RNFE of the Igbos of Southeast Nigeria, using sample data from foreign remittance-receiving households engaged in rural nonfarm income-yielding investments. Key findings from the regression analysis show that households' ratio of foreign remittances invested in rural nonfarm activities (RNFA) to the total amount of foreign remittances received by them tend to decrease with the increase in remittances received. There is, however, a positive correlation between remittances and expenditure on the rural nonfarm sector. The remittance elasticity for investment in the sector and the marginal foreign remittances share confirm that foreign remittance-receiving households spend a higher proportion of remittances on profit-oriented RNFA.

Comprehensive political risk assessment of South Africa: 2014

Sharlene Barnard, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Piet Croucamp, Dr., Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. South Africa is classified as a middle-income state with ample supply of resources, a well-developed communication, financial, energy, legal and transport sector, and a stock-exchange ranked among the top twenty-five in the world. The risk factors that arise in South Africa's external environment, such as contracted economic growth in the Eurozone and the consequences of quantitative easing in the USA (the potential outflow of capital from developing markets), are indicators of instability to the economy, but over which the country has minimal jurisdiction. Internal risks have been on the rise in the form of an inflationary current account deficit, declining mining and manufacturing outputs, coupled with escalating corruption in the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive political risk assessment of South Africa based on 12 identified risk indicators. Research for this paper includes various articles, risk reports and wide ranging factual research. South Africa is measured as a medium to moderate risk state.

The methodical approach to the establishment of interdependencies in the development of insurance and tourism markets

Olga Kozmenko, Professor, Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National bank of Ukraine, Ukraine
Dariya Abramitova, Lecturer, Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National bank of Ukraine, Ukraine

Abstract. In the recent years tourism market belongs to the sphere of interests of insurers. Insurance companies are interested in increasing tourist flows while tourist companies are interested in providing quality insurance of their services, especially those services which are related to international tourism. On the basis of economic and mathematical methods (structural analysis, the Savage method) the article studies interdependencies in the functioning of insurance and tourism markets. The relationship is determined by using the examples of the markets in Ukraine, France and the United States.

An empirical research in the relation between corporate organizational learning and organizational culture : a case study of insurance industry in Taiwan Region

Yuan-Duen Lee, Professor, Graduate School of Business and Operations Management, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan
Shih-Hao Chen, Ph.D. Student, Graduate School of Business and Operations Management, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan

Abstract. This study used the insurance industry in the list of top 1000 industries to conduct empirical research in the relation between corporate culture and organizational learning. The study applied descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, canonical correlation analysis and regression analysis to test the relation and difference between the four categories of corporate culture and the three perspectives of organizational learning, and to test the difference between demographic variable and corporate background variable in corporate culture and organizational learning. The results revealed that corporate culture is significantly correlated with organizational learning, and the perspectives of corporate culture category and organizational learning have anticipation and influences on each other.
The particular demographic variable and corporate background variable will cause the difference between corporate culture and organizational learning in their performances.

The impact of socioemotional wealth on family firms' financial performance

Pietro Gottardo, Associate Professor of Finance, Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia, Italy
Anna Maria Moisello, Assistant Professor of Managerial Accounting, Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia, Italy

Abstract. We study the effect on performance of family endowment on the business from the perspective of socioemotional wealth (SEW), i.e. the stock of affect-related value which the family attaches to the business. We analyze the impact of ownership and board characteristics on profitability, taking into account the possible moderating factors of the family generational stage, firm size, qualified presence of non-family shareholders and firm risk. We analyze 2,884 medium-large Italian private firms comparing 1,944 family and 940 non-family firms using correlation and pooling GLS regressions during 2001-2010.
We show that in the first generational stage family firms outperform non-family businesses. A family CEO, together with a board including numerous family members, positively affects performance in the first generational stage, but the effect is reversed in the later generational stages.
Our findings suggest developing by further research the relationship between performance and the emotional links among family members belonging to a nuclear family or to family branches. Moreover it would be advisable to check our findings by a cross-national study, in order to test how institutional and cultural context may affect SEW and performance. Our study suggests that family businesses must be able to adapt firm management and the structure of the board, taking into account the moderating effects that these conditions have on SEW and performance.

The role of shockvertising in the context of various generations

Renáta Machová, Dr., J. Selye University, Slovak Republic 
Erika Seres Huszárik, Dr., J. Selye University, Slovak Republic  
Zsuzsanna Tóth, J. Selye University, Slovak Republic 

Abstract. Shockvertising is an innovative advertising technique that purposely attempts to gain and keep attention with horror and disgust. This type of advertisement, in which blood, internal organs, racism and sexuality play a central role, can be found in our country, Slovakia as well. In order to obtain accurate and relevant information, current science only deals with the controversial and unethical advertising campaigns of companies. In this paper the values of each generation are presented then the concept of generation marketing is discussed in more details. In this research our goal is to find out how various age groups react to this kind of advertising. It is examined with the focus group technique, and, in order to extract quantitative data, the mentioned technique is combined with a questionnaire. Our assumptions and hypothesis are supported with statistical data, charts and tests of independence.

Public sector recruitment policies: efficiency, effectiveness and consequences

O. E. Okeke-Uzodike, Dr., University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Law and Management Studies, School of Management, IT and Governance, Pietermaritzburg Campus, South Africa
Mogie Subban, Dr., University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Law and Management Studies, School of Management, IT and Governance, Westville Campus, South Africa

Abstract. A vast number of literature has documented how corruption, insecurity, education and ethnicity (amongst others) have served as obstacles to national development in Nigeria. These obstacles have posed serious developmental challenges which are evident in the dysfunctions in the management system leading not only to ineffective and inefficient delivery of public services, but also the instability of the socio-economic and political well-being of the nation. Accordingly, this article attempts a re-examination of various government policies aimed at national development-particularly, human resources development. Human resources plays a collectively vital role in the success or failure of any organization or nation. As such, this article revisits recruitment policies, processes and procedures drawing insight from federal government ministries in Nigeria. Within emerging economies, there are few (albeit growing)studies linking recruitment policies and efficiency of the workforce to the realization of official goals and objectives. The article presents a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods used in the data collection process. Data sets were collected from 78 randomly selected managers (comprising of lower, middle and top management levels) mostly involved in recruitment processes and procedures in Nigerian ministries. The results of the study provide insight into strategies for building human resource capacity and repositioning the Nigerian public sector (and Africa at large) towards resolving various enervating developmental challenges.

Spirit of corporate social responsibility transforming from corporatism to socialized capitalism

Nadeem Khan, Postgraduate Researcher, Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK
Andrew Kakabadse, Professor of Governance and Leadership, Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK
Nada K. Kakabadse, Professor of Policy, Governance and Ethics, Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK

Abstract. This paper offers a critique of current corporate CSR practices in context of global trends. The legitimate modeling of CSR has yet to engage firm and political decision making with wider Society stakeholders. There is urgent need to transform towards socialized capitalism in which separate CSR board may focus on social and environmental concerns and offer more collaborative solutions to global / local CSR issues. This is underpinned with a need for returning to original moral purpose of CSR that has become eroded by narrower short term rational justifications.

Prospects of Japan-Russia cooperation in wind energy

Dmitry Nikolayev, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Russia
Vitor Sazonov, School of Economics and Management, Far Eastern Federal University, Russia

Abstract. The main objective of this study is to analyze and consider all the possible ways of cooperation between Russia and Japan in wind energy development and prove the statement that this cooperation is beneficial. Consequently, we try to show the possible spheres of collaboration between Japan and Russia in wind energy and to analyze an economic sense of this collaboration. Methodological basis of the study is comparative analysis of main features of Japanese and Russian wind energy markets. We are of the opinion that Japan-Russia cooperation in wind energy is beneficial due to the foreseeable gains for the countries. One of the possible ways of cooperation in wind energy development between Japan and Russia is installation of 30-50 MW wind energy electric stations on the basis of MWT100/2.4 and MWT102/2.4 wind turbines. Economically effective wind energy potential in Russia implies installation of 3062 of such turbines till 2020.

A study of small, micro and medium-sized enterprises in and around Tshwane, South Africa

Zeleke Worku, Tshwane University of Technology Business School, South Africa

Abstract. This article is a result of a 5-year long follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small, micro and medium-sized business enterprises (SMMEs) that operate in and around the City of Tshwane in South Africa. Data was gathered from each of the businesses on socioeconomic factors that are known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses was adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.

Firm failure causes: a population level study

Oliver Lukason, Researcher, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Estonia
Richard C. Hoffman, Professor, Franklin P. Perdue School of Business, Salisbury University, USA

Abstract. Business failure may be the result of either voluntaristic (internal) firm actions/decisions, deterministic environmental (external) events or both given causes (integrative approach). This study examines the prevalence of these causes of business failure. Results indicate that the largest proportion of firm failures is explained by the integrative approach, although two other perspectives hold a prominent role also. Moreover, internal causes of failure are more frequent than external. The findings based on multinomial regression revealed that the causes of failure also vary with the size and age of firms. The implications of the results for research and practice are discussed.

Exploring the process of customer engagement, self-brand connections and loyalty

Kay Naumann, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Marketing and Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Australia
Jana Bowden, Dr., Senior Lecturer, Department of Marketing and Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Australia

Abstract. Traditional measures of customer loyalty have been criticized for being too static and one-dimensional in nature and as such, customer engagement, or CE, has surfaced as a more dynamic and interactive concept through which to understand the nature of the customer-brand relationship. Despite recent and increasing interest in the theoretical foundations of CE, attempts to capture its potential antecedents and consequences continue to lack empirical clarity. This study addresses this gap by empirically exploring the operation of CE through its proposed antecedents of: satisfaction, trust, affective commitment and rapport; and proposed consequences, being: self-brand connections and loyalty. The relationships between the antecedents and consequences of engagement are then examined across a range of service types. The results revealed affective commitment to be a strong driver of self-brand connections, whereas satisfaction held greater importance for the formation of customer loyalty. Surprisingly, trust was found to have a negative relationship to self-brand connections. The findings of this research enable managers to better understand how the outcomes of CE, namely loyalty and self-brand connections, can be driven across range of service types.

Progress report on reflexive practices and change management

Joanne M. Roch, University of Sherbrooke, Canada

Abstract. We have to accept that results have just not been forthcoming in the time since conducting change with respect to transformation projects has been a topic for discussion. According to Making Change Work, a 2008 IBM study, successful changes remain the exception. Indeed, 60% of projects fail to achieve their initial objectives! The objectives herein aim at questioning the relevance of planned change-management approaches in a highly turbulent and complex context. Moreover, they suggest that the teachings of the leading contributions in this field merit review.
This article begins by presenting the meager success achieved with change-management practices and calling back into question the strategy of planned management of change.
After gleaning lessons from these analyses, the second section brings to the forefront the contributions of research that consider learning as a lever for organizational change, mainly with respect to the development of learning routines and the importance of developing reflexivity.
Although these contributions shed valuable light on the discipline, the approaches proposed by field practitioners appear to have rejected by more than one of them due to the scarcity of concrete means for implementing them, on the other.
This article proposes the foundation to guide practitioners and posits that a better understanding of the interpretative processes related to change would help managers achieve greater success in their change projects. It suggests a number of reflective initiatives that make it possible to stimulate experimentation, questioning, and brainstorming, since the idea is not changing once, but on a continual basis.