PPM Papers Coming Soon

This section contains information about articles which are arleady reviewed, accepted and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Identifying the critical success factors of organization with Analytic Hierarchy Process approach (case study - Iran Argham Company)

Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh, Associate Professor, Department: Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran
Gholam Hassan Pourhanifeh, MBA Graduate, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran

Abstract. In today's challenging and complex world, organizations success depends on productivity, continuous improvement in all dimensions and reforming the pattern of resource utilization. Therefore, organizations, while considering restrictions, should focus on the more effective factors or so-called critical success factors. This paper intends to identify and prioritize the critical success factors, among other, factors influencing success of the organization, using hierarchical analysis and application of tools and related software. Analytic Hierarchy Process provides the possibility to compare the factors via creating matrix of paired comparisons. The case study in this research includes identifying the critical success factors and prioritizing them in Iran Argham Company. Finally, among the results presented, five critical success factors are identified from the forty influential factors. These five factors account for about seventy percent of the organization's success. It should be noted that most studies conducted in this area focuse on the certain processes and special systems rather than study on the organization as a whole unit. This model can also be generalized to all organizations, including SMEs, and would provide remarkably valuable approaches, especially in competitive markets.

Measuring impact of word-of-mouth on tourist's travel experience: a case of Bangladeshi tourists' travel experience at Cox's Bazar

Mohammed Masum Iqbal, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business and Economics, Daffodil International University, Bangladesh
Jeta Majumder, Ph.D., Lecturer, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Studies, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abstract. Word-of-mouth (WOM) is a source of informal communication that is used to transmit information regarding satisfaction, value, risk, as well as behavioral intention. WOM is effective and personal communication. This study is conducted to examine the impact of word-of-mouth to some factors like perceived value, perceived risk, tourism satisfaction and behavioral intention of a destination. As this article is based on impact of word-of-mouth on these factors, descriptive research design has been used. By using statistical analysis like regression, anova and coefficients, this study investigated the impact of word-of-mouth on perceived value, perceived risk, tourism satisfaction and behavioral intention. The results showed that word-of-mouth have significant impact on perceived value and tourism satisfaction but less or no impact on perceived value and behavioral intention.

Fight against administrative corruption within governmental organizations from motto to practice (case study: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance)

Samieh Darsareh, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran
Mehrdad Bastanipour, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

Abstract. Administrative corruption in a simple definition is violation of a law for personal benefits by utilization of job position. It is a phenomenon within today's world, as one of the most important obstacles on the way of societies' progress. The impact of different factors in forming corruption has given it a complicated nature. Administrative corruption is a correlative issue and it is different according to value system of each society. This article is trying to present a solution in order to fight against administrative corruption through classification of staff with the help of explaining the relation of their perception, sensation and commitment towards corruption and corrupted situations. Present study in terms of purpose is developmental-practical, and in terms of execution and based upon research purposes is a survey. The study population is the staff of Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance in 2015. In order to explain perception, sensation and the behavior of staff, the questionnaire of administrative corruption is designed in three dimensions: perceptive aspect (cognitive) which includes items for assessing the status of awareness and recognition of staff from instances and consequences of administrative corruption; sensation aspect which includes items for assessing the vision and tendencies of staff towards corruption, and behavioral aspect which is formed from items for assessing the behavior of staff in facing with corruptive situations. In order to identify the reasons of corruption two questionnaires of "National identity" and "Organizational culture" have been designed. The result of the research was that the perpetrators of corruption can be divided into three categories. First category is the staff that their perception is positive, it means that they have adequate cognition from manifestations and corruption consequences and their feeling about corruption is negative, it means that they consider it as an ominous phenomenon, but they are guilty of corruption. Second category is the staff that their perception is positive, they don't see corruption as an ominous phenomenon. Consequently, their feeling toward corruption is positive, and they perpetrate it. The third category is the staff whose perception is negative, their feeling is uncertain, and they perpetrate it. The behavior of these categories will be interpreted in form of related theories. The significant note is that despite the tendency average to practice administrative corruption among governmental staff is lower than assumed average and it indicates that there is a protection of corruption perpetration but the rank of our country is not favorable the International Organization report. This warning made the researchers to provide new solutions to help resolving this social issue by reviewing current solutions for prevention, and fighting against administrative corruption, regarding the richness of evaluating system in Iran.

Weighing effectiveness of legal framework implementation and ICT SDE processes attainment of the Chirundu OSBP as perceived by users

Junior M. Mabiza, D.Phil. in engineering management Candidate, Assistant Lecturer in the Department Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Vincent Nguluwe, MBA, Provincial water officer at ministry of energy and water development, North-Western province, Zambia
John E. Agwa, Ph.D. Candidate, Head of Department Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Charles Mbohwa, Ph.D., Professor, Vice-Dean teaching and learning, research and innovation, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Khathu Mushavhanamadi, D.Phil. in engineering management Candidate, Lecturer in Department Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Nelson Madonsela
, D.Phil. in engineering management Candidate, Assistant Lecturer in Department Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. The Chirundu border post between Zambia and Zimbabwe is one of the busiest inland ports in the region whereby heavy delays have been observed despite the fact of the border post fitted out with one stop border post implantation to mitigate heavy delays. This paper reports on the investigation of two key concepts underpinning the new Zambian Chirundu one stop border post (OSBP) border system. The report outcome is based on the border users' opinion regarding the effectiveness of the new OSPB system. The two key concepts investigated are the legal framework of the OSBP and the ICT principle of information sharing and single input access point reported in this paper. It was found that there was other dynamics that contributes to trigger the inefficiency of the new system than the legal frame and the application of ICT principle for information sharing to the extent of causing substantial delays. Therefore, this paper seeks to inform the authority, decision makers of, and workers at the Chirundu border system that main concept of ICT and the legal framework might not be the cause of the inefficiency of this border system applied at Chirundu as viewed by border users. Accordingly, to recommend adequate solutions to address these challenges based on the users' perspective.

Impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Africa

Olawumi D. Awolusi, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Olufemi P. Adeyeye, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Abstract. Several studies have been conducted to examine the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow on economic growth. Indeed, the overall evidence is best characterized as mixed. This paper investigates the effect of FDI on economic growth in some randomly selected African economies from 1980 to 2013, using a modified growth model by Agrawal and Khan (2011). This model consists of Gross Domestic Product, Human Capital, International Technology Transfer, Labor Force, FDI and Gross Capital Formation (GCF). Ordinary least squares and generalized method of moments were used as the estimation techniques. Of all the results, only Gross Capital Formation, Human Capital, and International Technology Transfer in the Central African Republic were found not to have any statistically significant influence on economic growth. In general, the impact of FDI on economic growth in African countries is limited or negligible. Consequently, this study observes that a 1% increase in FDI would result in a 0.12% increase in GDP for South Africa, a 0.05% increase in Egypt, a 0.03% increase in Nigeria, a 0.02% increase in Kenya, and a 1% increase in GDP in the Central African Republic. The findings also reveal that South Africa's growth is more affected by FDI than the other four countries. The study also provides possible reasons behind South Africa's great show of FDI and the lessons other African countries could learn from South Africa better utilization of FDI. This study integrates the related drivers of the effectiveness and success of FDI.

Cultural diversity and business schools' curricula: a case from Egypt

Ruth Alas, Ph.D., Professor, Head of Management Department, Estonian Business School, Estonia
Mohamed Mousa, Ph.D. Student, Estonian Business School, Estonia

Abstract. The French Ecole Supérieure Libre des Sciences Commercial Appliquées (ESLSCA) in Paris is one of the most important global culturally diverse private business schools in terms of its number of branches and its history. ESLSCA has had a branch in Cairo in Egypt for about 17 years. This qualitative study seeks to focus on ESLSCA-Egypt branch to investigate the extent to which cultural diversity is included in its MBA curricula. The main methods for collecting data are document analysis, a number of semi-structured interviews, and a review of relevant literature. The study findings have meaningful implications for the practices of business schools' education and training.

Factors affecting youth entrepreneurship development within Kibera, Kenya: the perspective of entrepreneurship education

Wise Sambo, M.Tech., Economic and Management Sciences, Department of Business Management, University of South Africa, South Africa

Abstract. All over the world there has been an increased interest in entrepreneurship education and the society in general. Kenya was among the first countries in Africa to introduce aspects of entrepreneurship education in its education and training systems. Entrepreneurship and business creation are a growing alternative for young people in different economies whose age group often faces a labor market with double digit unemployment rates. This study seeks to investigate and report on the factors affecting youth entrepreneurship development with specific reference to entrepreneurship education in Kibera, a district of Kenya. Two objectives are identified, namely (i) to determine the government's provision and access to the entrepreneurship education and training among the Kenyan youth, and (ii) to determine whether there is a relationship between the level of education, training and development of youth entrepreneurship. A sample of three hundred entrepreneurs (aged 18-35) within the Kibera district in Kenya is drawn to participate in this study. Structured survey questionnaires are used to collect primary data from business owners in the Kibera district. Findings revealed a strong positive correlation between the provision of entrepreneurship education and development of youth entrepreneurship and the level of education has a very weak positive correlation to youth entrepreneurship development. This study concludes with recommendations on how youth entrepreneurship can be improved in Kibera and the rest of Kenya. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered via e-mails with a total response rate of 83.3% (250) returned for analysis.

The perceived influence on organizational productivity: a perspective of a public entity

Paul Green, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Finance & Information Management, Faculty of Accounting & Informatics, Durban University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. In an economic climate characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity, organizational productivity plays a more central role in determining success. There are many factors that impinge upon employees in their daily execution of duties that affect output. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influence organizational productivity, specifically, from the viewpoint of its employees. The study draws upon a quantitative paradigm using a non-probability sampling technique. Data were collected from a total of 161 employees using a structured questionnaire across two different office sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Statistical correlation tests were administered, and the findings indicate an association between organizational policies and employee benefit; organizational policies and performance appraisal; and performance appraisal and employee benefit. This research also confirms the findings of others, more significantly, in terms of reinforcing the perceptions of leadership and work-life balance as influential factors.

Strategic entrepreneurship and intrapreneurial intensity

Hanne Stokvik, Research Fellow, Nord University Business School, Norway
Daniel J. Adriaenssen, Research Fellow, Department of Psychology, Århus University, Denmark
Jon-Arild Johannessen, Ph.D., Professor (Full), Kristiania University College, Norway and Nord University Business School, Norway

Abstract. Problem: the concept of strategic entrepreneurship remains underdeveloped. Research question: how can various aspects of strategic entrepreneurship provide us with more insight into intrapreneurial intensity? Purpose: to shed some light on the concept of strategic entrepreneurship. The aim is to discuss three aspects of strategic entrepreneurship: risk, knowledge processes and value creation. Methodology: conceptual generalization. Findings: 1. A mini-theory is developed on the basis of the insights reached. 2. A development of Kirzner's concept of hidden knowledge as the foundation for entrepreneurship and innovation in organizations.

The effect of modern office technology on management performance: Durban Westville

Mashau Pfano, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Andrisha Beharry, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Abstract. It is difficult to think of a situation where businesses can do well without the use of modern office technology, in particular, items like computers and telephones. It is extremely difficult to determine if businesses depend on technology or if technology creates business opportunities. Modern office technology is correlated with positive change in management performance. Using a quantitative approach, 67 questionnaires were sent to middle and upper-level business managers in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. Modern office technology makes significant difference in a workplace. Office technologies enhance performance and this can only be seen if the office is equipped with relevant and needed technologies. There is a strong correlation between the right use of office technologies and positive change in management performance. It is recommended that office managers still procure modern office technology to increase performance. The challenge is to harness this newly emerging technology for the benefit of the business. This study concludes that technological advancement has a positive effect on our quality of life and the way we do business, and this trend is expected to keep escalating.

Sustaining employment through administrative management experiential learning in an open distance learning institution

Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele, Senior Lecturer, Department of Operations Management, University of South Africa, South Africa

Abstract. The supply of business and management graduates to the labor market has grown significantly. However, these graduates still find themselves without employment for years. This is because employment is lagging behind economic growth. As a result, unemployment rate in South Africa has increased from 22% in 1994 to 25% in 2014. In response, government, employers and managers are striving to create sustainable employment. However, creating sustainable employment is both challenging and difficult. No wonder that there is a constant cry to establish factors that enable sustainable employment. The aim of this research is to establish the impact of experiential learning in administrative management on sustainable employment. The research is quantitative in nature, and a questionnaire is used to collect data from the respondents. The research establishes that experiential learning in administrative management enables sustainable employment.

Aspects of a knowledge theory for new venture creation: management, policy and methodological implications

Hanne Stokvik, Research Fellow, Nord University Business School, Norway
Daniel J. Adriaenssen, Research Fellow, Århus University, Department of Psychology, Denmark
Jon-Arild Johannessen, Ph.D., Professor (full), Kristiania University College, Norway and Nord University Business School, Norway
Hugo Skålsvik, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Artic University (Tromsø), Norway

Abstract. The problem studied is related to new venture creation. The question we will examine here is: What are the knowledge conditions for new venture creation? The methodology used is conceptual generalization. The purpose of the paper is to bring new understandings to venture creation. In attempting to answer the research question, we hope to make a contribution to a policy for supporting entrepreneurship, both corporate entrepreneurship and independent entrepreneurship. The approach we adopt here has its roots in the Austrian School. Our area of research is the global knowledge economy of the 21st century.
Finding one in this paper is that entrepreneurial policy has to take four types of knowledge (explicit, tacit, implicit, hidden) into consideration in order to effectively bring forward new venture creation. Finding two is a mini theory, i.e. a system of propositions for new venture creation. Finding three is a system of methodology developed to bring forward the four knowledge types mentioned in finding one.

The application of Bhatt's knowledge management strategy in the organization of schools with the use of self-organized teams of teachers

Mohammad Hassan Hassani, Research Institute of Education Studies, Iran
Heidar Toorani, Research Institute of Education Studies, Iran

Abstract. Education, to make maximum use of its human and physical resources, needs to establish social space-generating capacity to meet its goals. The most important problem, according to experts' opinions, which has been damaged the effectiveness of schools, is the lack of a competitive environment schools. Therefore, it is required to draw up a framework to increase competition among schools. To establish such structure requires several factors which facilitate implementation. Therefore, using the theoretical framework and experiences of countries, facilitating factors in applying the self-organized teams were extracted. Attitudes of teachers and administrators in relation to these factors should be investigated to measure the preparedness of education to apply these factors. This article with considering KAP research, which is focused on preparedness (knowledge), attitudes and behavior, attempts to concentrate on the establishing teachers' level of preparedness and achieving self-organized teams. For this purpose, using a questionnaire, attitudes of elementary school principals in Tehran were evaluated. The results show preparedness and a positive attitude of principals and teachers about the desired factors.

Price competition between shrink-wrap software and cloud service firms under a stochastic model

Kuei-Yuan Cheng, Ph.D. Program of Technology Management, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan
Yao-Hsien Lee, Department of Finance, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan
Mei-Yu Lee
, Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan

Abstract. We establish a stochastic model of the price competition between shrink-wrap software and cloud service firms. We show that cloud service firms earn higher profits but face higher risks compared to shrink-wrap software firms. In order to attract customers and earn higher profits, we obtain the result that shrink-wrap software firms need to focus on pricing strategies, by contrast, cloud service firms need to focus on quantity strategies.

Contingencies, new-institutionalism and complexity in the organizational paradigm. The Italian Jobs Act

Massimo Franco, leads the "Organisational Studies" and "Human Resource Management Group" at the Department of Economics, Management, Society and Institutions, University of Molise, Italy
Alberto Cerimele, conducts his doctoral studies in "Human Resource Management" and "Organizational Behavior and Team Dynamics" at the Department of Economics, Management, Society and Institutions, University of Molise, Italy

Abstract. The present study is animated by the perspective that organizations can be compared to oxymorons lowered into the reality. The primary objective of this paper, therefore, is to highlight, through theoretical contributions and a case study, the role and the challenges that the companies face in the moments of the definition, and adaption, of the organizational structures in relation to the environmental changes and to the complexity, intended as a preliminary condition and opportunity. The essential thoughts animating the analysis are based on the concept of contingencies, on the new-institutionalism theory and they refer to the general framework of the complexity. The principal methodology used to perform the analyzes was a process of literature review. In addition, another methodology used to identify a common thread in the existing research was the "conceptual generalization". This process has highlighted the theoretical and scientific aspects of the analysis and it has been functional to the final analysis, aimed at highlighting the repercussions on the organization of the companies and the human resources of the Jobs Act, a set of laws and legislative decrees that from the end of 2014 has defined new rules and new technical and organizational scenarios.

Leading and manage diverse schools in South Africa

Herman J van Vuuren, Faculty of Education Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa
Philip C van der Westhuizen, Faculty of Education Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa
JL van der Walt, Faculty of Education Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa

Abstract. All school populations are diverse in many ways. The diversity in South African schools has been compounded since 1994 with the migration of Black learners to former white' schools. Some schools and their principals have succeeded in coping efficiently with the new social and cultural makeup of their schools while others have been struggling and even resigned under the pressures of all the conflicting demands from stakeholders. The theoretical and empirical investigation reported in this paper shows that principals and schools could benefit enormously from learning from the experiences of the more successful schools and their principals.

Factors affecting the performance of small and medium enterprises in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Sharmilee Sitharam, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa
Muhammad Hoque, Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa

Abstract. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have an important role to play in the development of the country. A strong SME sector contributes highly to the economy, contributing to the Gross Domestic Product, by reducing the level of unemployment, reduction in poverty levels and promotion of entrepreneurship activity. In South Africa (SA), the growth of SMEs and prevalence of SMEs is significantly low. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the internal and external factors affecting the performance of SMEs in KwaZulu-Natal, SA. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 74 SMEs owners/managers who were members of the Durban Chamber of Commerce via online using anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed technological advancement would improve the performance of the business. With regards to challenge, the majority of the respondents viewed competition as a major challenge. Almost all the respondent indicated that crime and corruption affecting business performance. Competition was the only factor, amongst the studied internal and external factors that revealed a significant association with the performance of SMEs in KwaZulu-Natal (p = 0.011). SMEs need to recognize they must prepare for both domestic and international competition. Collaboration between SMEs could be a way for SMEs to confront competition.

A literature review of the sustainability, the managerial conduct of management and the internal control systems evident in South African small, medium and micro enterprises

Juan-Pierré Bruwer, M.Tech. Internal Auditing, Lecturer, School of Accounting Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Philna Coetzee, Ph.D. Internal Auditing, Deputy Executive Dean, College of Accounting Sciences, University of South Africa, South Africa

Abstract. The purpose of this research study was to theoretically investigate the sustainability, the managerial conduct of management and the internal control systems evident in South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). To achieve the aforementioned, a literature review was conducted through analyzing relevant secondary data from journal articles, theses, dissertations, books, and reports. According to popular literature, the overall sustainability of any organization is strongly influenced by is internal control systems. Taking into account the weak sustainability of South African SMMEs, it appears that the soundness of the internal control systems of these business entities is adversely influenced by the managerial conduct of its management. This is particularly the case since the managerial conduct of management in South African is often described as flexible; the managerial conduct of management makes up a substantial part of the control environment which, in turn, is deemed as the foundation of any system of internal control. In quintessence, the literature reviewed shows that the sustainability of South African SMMEs is adversely influenced by a flexible managerial conduct of management which directly (and negatively) impacts on the soundness of their internal control systems; their abilities to attain relevant objectives in the foreseeable future.

An assessment of the challenges of adopting and implementing IFRSS for SMEs in South Africa

Sikhwari Rudzani, University of Venda, South Africa
David Charles Manda, MBA, CPA (Australia), Senior Lecturer (Accounting and Auditing), University of Venda, South Africa

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges faced by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in adopting and implementing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for SMEs in South Africa. There is a perception that although SMEs are required to use IFRS for SMEs in South Africa, many of these entities are finding it difficult to adopt or implement the IFRS for various reasons including lack of the necessary expertise. The objective of the study was to establish empirically the reasons and subsequently to determine the attributing causes of the problem, if that was the case.
The study was based on a sample of randomly selected number of SMEs in Vhembe district, Thohoyandou, Limpopo province, South Africa. The study findings have shown that many SMEs in Vhembe District (67%) have adopted IFRS for SMEs in various forms and degree but generally SMEs still find challenges in implementation due to lack of resources. For compliance purposes, however, even those SMEs which have not substantially implemented the IFRS for SMEs are expected to prepare their financial statements by referring to the guide-lines.
Consequently this raises a problem when comparing financial performance of various SMEs whose financial statements are prepared using different approaches. The study findings serve as a reminder to the accounting profession about the challenges that SMEs face when they attempt to adopt IFRSs for SMEs.

Competitive intelligence practice challenges in the South African property sector

Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele, Senior Lecturer, Department of Operations Management, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract. Competitive intelligence is a critical success factor for businesses of different forms and sizes. Competitive intelligence helps businesses to survive in the midst of fierce competition. It offers competitive advantage to firms. However, firms find it challenging to practice CI. Whilst competitive intelligence practice challenges have been identified in other sectors in South Africa, no research has been conducted to establish competitive intelligence challenges in the South African property sector. This study aims to establish challenges faced by property practitioners in practising competitive intelligence. The study was quantitative in nature and a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The analysis was descriptive in nature.

Defining success of African immigrant-owned small businesses in Cape Town, South Africa

Risimati Maurice Khosa, Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria campus, South Africa
Vivence Kalitanyi, University of South Africa, South Africa

Abstract. Taking Cape Town, South Africa as a case, this paper sought to investigate the factors that define the success of small businesses owned by African immigrants. The paper reviewed literature on immigrant entrepreneurs, immigrant-owned ventures and social capital. A random sample of available immigrant small businesses owners was taken where semi-structured interviews were conducted, as well as the use of self-administered questionnaires. Secondary data (literature review) has unveiled that social networks are vital in the formation and growth stages of an immigrant-owned business as networks provide the necessary support. Ultimately, social networks supplement the survival chances of an immigrant-owned venture. Furthermore, primary data (empirical results) has revealed that most of the businesses are mainly run by males, while longevity and employment creation are defining factors of success to African immigrant-owned small businesses in Cape Town. Following the empirical findings and their analysis, recommendations have been formulated.

Entrepreneurial education in the school curriculum: in search of positioning in Zimbabwe

Gwendoline V. Nani, Department of Business Management, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

Abstract. This study was conducted to find out when Entrepreneurship can be introduced in the school curriculum. A case study design premised in the qualitative approach was employed, which used semi-structured focus group interviews as data collection instruments. The areas of study were purposively selected government primary and secondary schools in the Bulawayo Metropolitan Province in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed thematically and discussed according to research objectives. Findings revealed that Entrepreneurship per se is not taught in government primary and secondary schools. Based on these findings, the recommendations were that Entrepreneurship should be introduced in the school curriculum at primary level to allow learners to lay a solid foundation for creativity, nurturing and innovation of business ideas for use later in life.

ICT as a primary tool for SMU's SOR business

Solly Matshonisa Seeletse, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

Abstract. The Department of Statistics and Operations Reasresch at the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University in South Africa desires to increase its research output, as well as provide high quality teaching and learning. Most SOR lecturers want to embrace technology and innovations, and also be competitive both regionally and globally. This can be achieved more effectively if they are trained in computer applications. Thus they should be developed into critical citizens of the digital world. They should also be prepared to use information and communication technology (ICT) as a teaching and learning resource, as well as a research and community engagement backing. An innovation in academia should be backed by the lecturer. Thus, the main concern of this paper was to explore use of ICT as a business tool in SOR. Methodologies of the study were case study and thematic content analysis, and the data collection tool was a questionnaire. The study found that SOR was understaffed, and could not provide full statistics (stats) training mainly in the statistical packages. The lecturers were all trained in ICT and the packages. They were all willing to use ICT in SOR activities. The computer laboratories were adequate for the student numbers at the time, even though some computers were not working. These laboratories showed to be poorly adequate for the envisaged growth of SOR. SOR would also need more lecturers for the future growth. The study recommends growth of SOR in lecturers and ICT facilities, at the least.

Business characteristics of small and medium enterprises in rural areas: a case study on southern region of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya, Durban University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. This paper reports on the Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) business characteristics in rural places of Southern KwaZulu - Natal (KZN) province. It was intended to identify and discuss the various characteristics and the implications they have on the survival and growth of rural enterprises. The study was conducted in five areas (uMuziwabantu, ubuhlebezwe, Sisonke, Zingolweni and UMzimkhulu) Southern Region of KZN province. The sample consisted of 127 SMEs owners/managers operating in the selected areas using a quota sampling method, with respondents completing a five - point Likert scale questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The findings indicated that most employees within the business are unskilled; the business operations are run by using modern facilities; most of business investment strategies are hindered by a lack of finance; and, the local market is very small in selling rural SMEs' products. SPSS (23.0) version was used for data analysis. The findings presented in the figures and tables. Statistical analysis revealed that business characteristics of SMEs in rural were tested and found to be significant (P=.000*).
The paper will be useful tool for the policy-makers, business financial support institutions, and business stakeholders, government policy agencies in underlining a new way to consider future growth of SMEs in rural places, to understand challenges properly and to adjust growth strategies for the remote and under-developed areas. Most work has been focusing on SMEs in the urban and metropolitans areas with less emphasis on the rural SMEs with specific reference to KZN. The findings are limited by the quantitative nature, small sample and exploratory study. Therefore, generalization of these results should be done with care and more research with larger samples extended to other provinces is highly recommended.

Will Uzbekistan's oil and gas industry benefit from international listing?

Kurkam Suvanova, PhD student, Department of Finance, Hanyang University Business School, Seoul
Changmin Lee, Assistant Professor, Department of Finance, School of Business, Hanyang University, Seou
Hyoung-Goo Kang, Assistant Professor, Department of Finance, Hanyang University Business School, Seoul

Abstract. Uzbekistan's oil and gas industry is experiencing declining production due to the depletion of existing oil and gas fields and aging production infrastructure. A multi-level organizational structure at Uzbekneftegaz is another reason for low efficiency of the industry, which causes the problems of increased bureaucracy, increased tax burden and inefficient allocation of resources. Partial privatisation of Uzbekneftegaz can be an efficient tool in attracting alternative financing without putting the burden on the state budget and not ceding government control. Being listed on the international market Uzbekneftegaz will have to follow internationally accepted corporate governance standards. This will have a positive impact on the efficiency and productivity of the industry.

Impact of work-life balance on job satisfaction of women doctors

Anuradha Nayak, Research Scholar, Department of Management Studies, Indian School of Mines, India
Mrinalini Pandey, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Indian School of Mines, India

Abstract. In the competitive era of today, women have to battle hard to establish their individuality in the society as well as in professional life. "Work-Life Balance" is the major problem in the life of working women. The study covers work life balance of women doctors of private hospitals of Jharkhand. This study helps to understand the impact of work life balance on job satisfaction. Regression analysis and ANOVA Test have been used to test the relationship between the variables.The study has found that work-life balance has positive impact on job satisfaction.

Unplanned obsolescence: consumers attitudes and perceptions of lifestyle brands in Durban, South Africa

John Amolo, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Andrisha Beharry-Ramraj, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Abstract. Planned obsolescence has become a strategy adopted by large corporations, for products to be produced with surprisingly short useful life spans. These shorter than expected product life spans ensure that consumers make regular repeat purchases of their favourite items. The monopoly of obsolescence of products is no longer the producers' prerogative and this by itself leads to unplanned obsolescence basically led by the consumers' choice. This research study looks into consumer's attitudes and perceptions of their favourite lifestyle brands. This is on the basis that less is known on unplanned obsolescence, which arises from the consumers conduct. This work also investigates why consumers replace products, even though these products are most often still seen as fully functional. This social constructivism study has adopted a quantitative approach through the use of self-administered questionnaires. The 300 participants of the study on which this article is based were selected from the Durban of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, and were chosen through stratified random sampling. The study was further cross generational, in order to examine how consumers attitudes change as they become older. It was found that despite knowing the truth relating to the phenomenon consumers were willing to remain loyal.

Conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry: tourism management and advertisement as moderators

Wasib B Latif, Ph.D. Candidate, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Md. Aminul Islam, Associate Professor, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Idris Md. Noor, Associate Professor, School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
Mahadzirah Mohamad, Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Kritika Kongsompong, Associate Professor, Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration of Chulalongkorn, University Sasa Patasala, Thailand

Abstract. The conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry is a combination of antecedents and moderators that create differential effects on customer response to the tourism marketing of the brand. By constructing a conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry will build a competitive advantage in the tourism marketplace. Indeed, recent trends in modern tourism marketing have changed tremendously, and study of a conceptual framework is increasingly becoming considerable to keep pace with this change. In this conceptual paper, we have summarized the literature on currently prevailing concepts and approaches on brand image for tourism industry.

Assessing service quality in online banking services

Ulas Akkucuk, Bogazici University, Department of Management, Istanbul, Turkey
Behcet Teuman, BIS Solutions, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract. Service quality and the effective measurement of service quality on the Internet have been drawing much attention lately with the increasing use of the World Wide Web. Researchers and managers focus on the construction of scales to measure electronic service quality, which assess customer satisfaction and loyalty as an ultimate goal. E-S-Qual is the most recently developed and popular e-service quality measurement technique on which there are quite a number of research studies. In this study, existing literature on service quality scales and the E-S-Qual scale is reviewed. A modified scale is also proposed suitable for the online banking sector.

Budgetary allocation to agriculture in South Africa: an empirical review from 1994 to 2014

Isaac B. Oluwatayo, Ph.D., Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, School of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, South Africa
Stephen M. Mantsho, Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, School of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, South Africa

Abstract. The agricultural sector is no doubt one of the most important sectors in sub-Saharan Africa, considering its prime place as a livelihood source and employer of the vast majority of residents, especially those in rural areas. In South Africa, for instance, agriculture plays a very significant role despite its declining contributions to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for some years now. This dwindling share of agriculture in the country's GDP could be attributed to a number of factors ranging from changing government policies, declining budgetary allocation to the sector, and aging infrastructure and population growth. It is against this backdrop that a review of the effect of this downward slide in budgetary allocation on the development of the country is considered to be important.

Future entrepreneurs: does the field of study matter? A comparison of students in a South African urban environment

Jean-Marie Mbuya, University of Johannesburg South Africa
Chris Schachtebeck, M.Com., Lecturer, Department of business management, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. South Africa is experiencing high rates of unemployment and poverty, particularly among the youth. Entrepreneurship, and the education of it, is often seen as a solution to this socio-economic issue, yet studies have shown conflicting results on the impact the field of study has on entrepreneurial intent. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the entrepreneurial intention among urban students enrolled for an entrepreneurship qualification versus students who were registered for a non-entrepreneurship related qualification. The article presents quantitative, empirical data collected from 603 students by means of a questionnaire to determine if the field of study has an influence on entrepreneurial intent. The study made use of descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett test in order to discover similarities and differences in entrepreneurial intent in students pursuing entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial qualifications. The results revealed that students view entrepreneurship as a valuable career path, regardless of field of study. Both groups held similar strong positive views and beliefs regarding their intention to pursue this career path. Entrepreneurship students, however, display a marginally higher self-observed personal attitude toward becoming entrepreneurs. Results also showed that family support is an important influencer in entrepreneurial intent among students.

Evaluating the effect of accruals quality, investments anomaly and quality of risk on risk premium (return) of stock of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

Seyed Kazem Ebrahimi, Assistant Professor in Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Ali Bahrami Nasab, Accounting Teacher of Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mehdi Karim, Accounting Student of Master Degree in Department of Accounting, Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract. Nowadays reaching to economic goals in any society requires public participation, which is only the result of people participation. Investment in stock market is one of people participation methods. So awareness from stock return and its affecting factors is one of anxieties of investors and owners of shares. In this research we evaluated the effective factors on stock return using Fama and French models. So we studied the effect of some factors including accruals quality, anomalies of investments, size factor, market's risk premium factor, and book equity to market equity factor, on stock's risk premium which is representative of stock returns, in 70 listed companies in Tehran stock exchange from 20 March 2003 to 20 March 2014.Results showed that accruals quality and quality of risk had meaningful effect on risk premium, which is representative of stock returns. Results also showed that investment anomaly has no meaningful effect on risk premium and consequently on stock returns.

Communication privacy management of students in Latvia

Andris Petersons, Dr.sc.soc., Turiba University, Latvia
Ilkhom Khalimzoda, doctoral student, Turiba University, Latvia

Abstract. The lack of communication privacy boundaries among students and the fault of self-disclosure are two main reasons for unforeseen distress, broken relationships and trust, vulnerability and conflicts in universities. Based on S. Petronio's theory of communication privacy management this research investigates the interaction of domestic students and foreign students in Latvia with their peers in order to set up privacy and disclosure boundaries that do not to violate peer privacy, especially in a sensitive multicultural context. In fact, the presence of private information and the willingness to disclose it is often confronted with numerous privacy dilemmas and issues regarding their secureness, especially in universities where peers are young with different cultural backgrounds. This article analyses the privacy management skills of locals and foreigners and reveals how security of information is managed between them stemming from social penetration and communication privacy management theory. Privacy management is significant in facing the dilemma of communication privacy and facilitates solving already existing problems of privacy among students.

The role of individual interpersonal relationships on work performance in the South African retail sector

Isaac Idowu Abe, Bsc Business Admin, MBA., Graduate School of Business and Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Roger B. Mason, Ph.D., MBL, BA, Wholesale & Retail Leadership Chair, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. Partial or non-recognition of the influence of interpersonal relationships at work could impair the growth, diffusion and success of retail business. For instance, South African retailers have been taking advantage of the retail revolution in Africa to reach the rest of the continent with products and services. Therefore, to examine the interpersonal relationships among supervisors and subordinates in this sector for its contribution to individual and organizational outcomes is important. This paper examines the influence of individual interpersonal relationships on employee performance at work. A mixed method approach was adopted and self-reporting questionnaires were administered to 167 supervisors and 144 subordinate workers of four retail companies that participated in the study. The survey instrument contained both closed-ended and open-ended questions to enable a concurrent collection of data. The quantitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22, while qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. It was found that the relationship between interpersonal relationships and employee performance for the supervisors was weak, while a less significant relationship was observed among the variables for the subordinate workers. The qualitative analysis offered explanations for the weakness and dissociation among interpersonal relationships and employee performance.

Contested confines: political risk and the media in South Africa

Mary-Anne Piasecki, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Piet Croucamp, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. The South African private news media industry represents a substantial portion of the overall media industry and the most successful in terms of profit acquired. It is critical however to assess the shareholders and private ownership of the news media industry in order to determine the likely success of investment in this industry. However, additional risk factors need to be considered along with the shareholders and ownership; macro factors such as, legislation and economic stability as well as micro factors such as the restructuring of ownership and transparency within the industry. It is also fundamental that the news media industry of South Africa is assessed through the lens of its historical landscape and transformation and its Fourth Estate responsibilities. Through this assessment it is possible to conclude three likely outcomes of investment in the news media industry. These outcomes are based on the measured growth and current stability of the industry and the South African economy. The most concerning risk for investment is the continued economic downturn of the South African economy and its effect on restructuring of media ownership and a declining profit. This can be coupled with the risk of legislative turnover and executive overreach within the news media industry.

How can we improve the effectiveness of HRM strategy? A model for future research

Adriaensen, D.J. Research Fellow, Århus University, dept. Psychology, Denmark
Jon-Arild Johannessen, Professor (Full), Oslo School of Management and Nord University Business School, Norway
Helene Sætersdal, Associate Professor, Oslo School of Management, Norway

Abstract. Issue: It is unclear what is meant by human resources (HR) practices at various levels: individual (micro); organizational (meso); and general (macro). Objective: An important objective of this article is to develop a model for future research into strategic HR management. Problem for discussion: How can organizations maintain their competitive position with the help of strategic HR management? Research questions: How can we understand strategic HR management at different levels? What knowledge base do we have for strategic HR management? Method: Conceptual generalization Findings: We have developed a typology for the different levels (micro, meso and macro) and the various perspectives: behavioral; resource-based; knowledge-based and dynamic capabilities. We have developed a research model for future research into strategic HR management, which takes account of the particular level and the knowledge perspective that has been applied. At the same time, our model illustrates examples of HR practices at different levels, HR management results, and organizational performance.

Evaluating customer service in banking in the Malawian Public Post Office

Steven K. Msosa, M.Man.Sc.- Marketing, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Marketing and Retail Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
Jeevarathnam P. Govender, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Marketing and Retail Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

Abstract. Achieving service quality has been the goal of many organizations over the past decade. In recent times, the postal business across the world has experienced a sharp decline in the volume of mail due to more efficient alternative channels of communication. The dwindling volumes of mail have made it necessary for public postal operators to diversify into financial services as one way of generating more revenue. However, the influx of many players into the financial service industry has raised the standard of service quality as a tool for business growth and sustainability and as a result, there is no room for mediocre performance. This paper examines customer perceptions of service quality in the Malawian public postal service. A survey comprising a sample of 400 financial services customers was conducted using the SERVPERF model as the measuring instrument. The results show that customer perceptions of the service quality dimensions are satisfactory. There were significant differences between education level and the perceptions of tangibles and reliability and between region and the perception of tangibles. There were no significant differences between gender, age and occupation and the perception of empathy, tangibles, assurance, reliability and responsiveness. Recommendations are proposed on how the public postal operator can improve service quality among its financial services customers. This study can prove useful as a basis for comparison of customer service quality by providers of banking services in other under-developed countries.