PPM Papers Coming Soon
This section contains information about articles under review and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.
Responsible investment in Germany, Austria and Switzerland
Sebastian Lobe, WHL Graduate School of Business and Economics, Germany
Abstract. Sustainable and Responsible Investments (SRI) are booming in the US and Europe. In German-speaking countries, Switzerland is a leading force for SRI with an overall 2010 market volume of about US$ 45 billion, Germany's SRI market covers middle ground with US$ 21 billion, while Austria's is relatively small with US$ 3 billion. In this paper, we give a timely review on German-speaking countries' attributes, responsible investment, and its legislation, whilst analyzing the financial performance and characteristics of socially responsible investments in the respective country's stock markets. We focus on passive equity investments to obtain a most undistorted view on the performance and style of SRI strategies.
Local firms' strategies and cluster coopetition in Tuscany: the case of "Toscana Promozione" Agency
Lorenzo Dal Maso, University of Florence, Department of Business and Economics, Italy
Abstract. This study examines a new paradigm of coopetition strategy emerged in Tuscany, one of the most famous Italian area in the world for cultural and economic heritage. Nowadays, global success in business requires that firms implementboth competitive and cooperative strategies (i.e. coopetition). This strategy, according to Ray Noorda (the founder of Novell - an American multinational software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah), consider the advantages arising when both cooperation and competition coexist in the same domains.
Higher education institutions and carbon management: cases from the UK and South Africa
Godwell Nhamo, University of South Africa, South Africa
Abstract. As the world sets its eyes firmly on sustainability issues, carbon management has found its way onto the radars of higher education institutions. When one considers carbon management, global warming and climate change automatically come into the picture. To this end, carbon management policies seek to lower greenhouse gas emissions mainly through migrating to renewable energy, clean and energy efficient technologies. Although South Africa has clearly defined its agenda to move towards low carbon development, the role of higher education in managing own carbon footprint is still not clearly defined. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in the United Kingdom where higher education is expected to implement carbon management strategies. From the United Kingdom perspective, carbon management in higher education institutions seeks to fulfil twin requirements: (1) a contribution towards attaining national targets articulated in the 2008 Climate Change Act and (2) achieving targets set for higher education by the Higher Education Funding Council for England to have carbon management policies in place by 2011. Drawing insights on carbon management experiences from the higher education sector in the United Kingdom, this paper concludes that although higher education institutions in South Africa still lag behind in managing its carbon footprint, there are institutions that have awakened to the dictates of a decarbonized higher education sector. Evidence to this effect includes the progress made by institutions such as Rhodes University and the University of South Africa that have drawn up carbon footprints and associated management strategies. However, work still remains in terms of having more projects implemented on the ground.
Does information and communication technologies contribute to organization performance? Evidence from Nigerian universities
Adekunle Oluwole Binuyo, University of South Africa, South Africa
Abstract. This study assessed the relationship between ICT investments in relation to organisational performance with specific focus on knowledge-imbibed organisations - universities. The study focuses on drawing possible relationships between ICT investment and ICT cost efficiency and, various indicators of organisation performance such as return on capital employed, net profit margin and return on assets. The study uses data generated from the annual report of 37 universities in South West Nigeria over the period between 2001 and 2010 in dynamic panel environment. Controlling for structural differences and time-varying dynamics among these universities, the analyses show varying effects of ICT Investment on performance. The findings indicate that ICT investment and ICT cost efficiency have positive and significant relationship with performance indicators. The study recommends that ICT investment should be guided in order to stimulate organisational performance.
How business reporting changed during the financial crisis: a comparative case study of two large U.S. banks
Mark K. Muheki, Aarhus University, Denmark
Abstract. Challenging times, such as the recent financial crisis, appear to cause organizations to change their business reporting. Yet, there is not much evidence of how changes in business reporting were enacted by banks, and there is only little discussion about the extent to which this can be seen and assessed as crisis communication. Using a comparative case study of two U.S. banks, we investigate how their way to report financial performance changed during the ‘troubled times.' The investigation uses annual reports that cover years before and during the financial crisis.
Competitive interaction: nature, volume and patterns of generic competitive actions executed by the three largest mobile telecommunication network operators in Turkey
Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali, The American University, Cyprus (Northern)
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to understand the volume of generic competitive actions initiated or executed by the three major mobile telecommunications operators in Turkey, as well as the nature of these actions and the observable patterns with which they were carried out within a 10year period. The study is the third in a series of studies aimed at completely mapping the competitive dynamics of the mobile telecommunications network operating industry. It adopts a mixed method approach leaning more towards the qualitative than quantitative method of social science research inquiry, as it builds upon findings from the second study in the series in a bid to shed more light into the very nature of competitive actions carried out by each of the firms under study, the resources they depended upon to carry them out and most importantly, the volume of generic competitive action each of the firms accounted for in their interaction with rivals during the time period under study. Findings revealed that all three companies were more likely to carry out generic action types of the ‘bring about' category than any other generic action type. Also financial resources accounted for the major resource upon which the firms observed depended for the initiation and execution of these actions. These and much more observations were found to be of immense value to the present body of literature and to both industry and non-industry stakeholders.
Perceived problems associated with the implementation of the balanced scorecard: evidence from Scandinavia
Dag Øivind Madsen, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Norway
Abstract. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is one of the most widely used and discussed management concepts in the world. Although many BSC success stories have been cited in the practitioner-oriented literature and in the business media, researchers have shown that the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard can be a complicated process. There are many pitfalls and dysfunctional consequences associated with the implementation and use of the BSC. Still, little research is conducted on BSC implementation issues. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Scandinavian BSC users. Based on interview data, the paper identifies four main problem areas associated with the implementation of the BSC concept: Conceptual, technical, social and political issues. These problematic issues are discussed with reference to the existing BSC literature, and more generally, the literature on the implementation of management concepts in organizations.
The influence of culture on marketing communications: critical cultural factors influencing South African and German businesses
Marcel Schnalke, M Tech: Marketing, South Africa
Abstract. The area growing importance of international communication possesses great potential for research. This study was undertaken in order to understand the influence of national culture on marketing communications between South African and German businesses. The study was undertaken as a cross-sectional quantitative survey combined with qualitative in-depth interviews to provide better understanding of the information obtained from the survey. The data was collected with the aid of a research questionnaire, which was emailed to the research sample. Collected data was analysed using SPSS (Version 17.0) and descriptive analysis was carried out using tables and figures as well as the application of inferential statistics. The research sample was obtained from the Membership Directory 2010/2011 of the Southern African - German Chamber of Commerce and Industry with contact details of 500 companies located in South Africa and dealing with German businesses. Findings of the study revealed the following as critical cultural factors to marketing communication: language; value systems; religion; level of education; attitude towards time; as well as the marketing communication style and marketing messages have all been identified. The study has revealed the emergence of new challenges for companies operating internationally. The national culture of each country was highlighted as an area of importance whose variables exert considerable influence on the communication process. In light of the research findings, recommendations on improving international communication between South African and German companies were provided.
Open innovation in SMEs: a case study of a regional open innovation platform
Wolfgang Kathan, Department of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Abstract. Open innovation has enjoyed widespread acceptance among large companies. SMEs, and especially micro firms, face specific challenges when adopting and implementing open innovation approaches. In this paper we describe a regional platform that was set up to support SMEs and micro firms to implement open innovation. The platform focuses on community-based innovation contests. The guiding idea of the project, its implementation and some lessons learnt are discussed.
Why the transforming of cable operators in China is delayed?
Yu Yang, Department of Public Administration and Research Centre for Industrial Organization, Southeast University in China
Abstract. China's national cable operator should be established by the end of 2012 while it has not been accomplished so far. This paper analyzes the key factors in the transformation of China's provincial cable operators and explores answers to the question why the transforming of cable operators in China is delayed. An empirical analysis on the transformation speed and quality was performed using data from 1999-2010. The results are not only about speed but tradeoffs between speed and quality. First, the capital-driven model was positively determined to affect both transformation speed and quality. However, the complete control by capital-driven entities could only promote the transformation speed but not quality. The government-driven model positively affects transformation speed but negatively affects transformation quality. Second, the competition with telecom operators delayed cable's transformation but enhanced the transformation quality. Third, close cooperation between cable operators and content improved transformation quality while slowing down the speed of transformation. To a limited degree, these findings provide suggestions for well accelerating ongoing transformation of China's national cable operator, including the well-balanced combination of capital-driven and government-driven entities, the exploration on the comparative advantage of cable operators over telecom companies and the cooperation between cable companies and upstream content partnerships.