PPM Papers Coming Soon

This section contains information about articles under review and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Corporate practice in preserving knowledge regarding mothers on child-care leave (based on empirical research)

Andrea Bencsik, Professor, Selye J. University, Slovakia
Tímea Juhász, Ph.D., Freelancer, Slovakia

Abstract. The question of knowledge management has become a highlighted issue in the companies' everyday life. Knowledge itself is the most important capital of organizations and acquiring, developing and preserving it means a lot of tasks and requirements for the companies. The complex activities of the knowledge management system appear with different priorities in the practice of companies, which depend on the company's circle of activities, its organizational structure, its innovative willingness, the content of HR, and some others. However, it is a fact that preserving and keeping employees' knowledge is one of the most emphasized areas of a knowledge management system in companies.
This issue especially becomes highlighted when an employee leaves the company. How and what can be done in order not to lose the knowledge she possesses representing value for the company? Is there an already elaborated protocol at companies for managing this issue or is it possible that companies are not aware of the importance of this problem?
Similar ideas and thoughts have motivated this research, which had the aim to recognize how knowledge preserving operates at Hungarian companies in a special life situation during the knowledge-transfer of employees leaving the company with the reason of child-care.
The results of qualitative and quantitative researches justified that companies usually do not calculate on losing knowledge if a woman goes on child-care leave for shorter or longer period of time; although they are aware of the fact that not all the knowledge of the would-be mothers remain at the company.

Business risk management-the key success factor: evidence from shebeens and taverns in Soshanghuve Township

Ajay K Garg, TUT Business School, South Africa
Pretty Makukule, TUT Business School, South Africa

Abstract. This study examined the factors that affect business growth by shebeens and taverns owners in Soshanguve Township. Data was collected using structured closed-ended questionnaires. The population consisted of 196 businesses, 120 were sampled and 84 responses were received using a structured questionnaire. Frequency analysis, SEM modelling and Chi square testes were done to analyze the data. Results indicate that majority of the businesses were operating as sole propriety and have been in existence for more than 5 years, hired less than 5 full time employees. The study revealed that there was a weak but positive relationship between capital, managerial skills, government support and legislation and regulations and the growth of the business, while entrepreneurial capabilities showed a strong and positive relationship with growth. This study concludes that awareness of business risk; its management, willingness to take risk and expand were the key factors to growth. While other factors listed by literature does play a role in the growth but were not paramount to success.

Strategic enactment: strategy making practices for complex terrains

Shamim Bodhanya, University of KwaZulu-Natal. South Africa

Abstract. The field of strategic management has been dominated primarily by rational and analytical approaches. Although there has been some shift to incorporate perspectives and ideas about emergent strategy, these draw primarily from theory related to organizational learning. This paper presents a critique of conventional approaches to strategic management by taking an inter-disciplinary perspective of strategy drawing on organizational learning, system dynamics, complexity theory, futures thinking, creativity and decision-making. It argues instead for a shift of perspective to that of strategy making, by way of a strategic enactment process that embraces a more organic, dynamic, emergent nature of strategy. A set of practices is proposed that may facilitate strategic conversation in such a strategic enactment process. This is a systemic set of practices to facilitate effective strategy and in traversing complexity and turbulence. It overcomes the formulation and implementation dichotomy by taking a holistic perspective and integrating them into single gestalt of thinking-action, applicable in a wide variety of organizations and contexts.

The influence of open plan work-environments on the productivity of employees: the case of engineering firms in Cape Town

Wildré Kok, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Melissa Meyer, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Sheree Titus, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Shairn Hollis-Turner, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Juan-Pierré Bruwer, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. More large organizations are moving away from traditional private offices and adopting open plan work-environments. This is mainly done to save space and money since office space is limited in both size and usability. Prior research suggests that large organizations in the United States of America and the United Kingdom make use of open plan work-environments as emphasis is placed on cost-effectiveness, but not necessarily on employee satisfaction. Since the advantages of open plan work-environments (e.g. sharing ideas, improved communication, etc.) largely outweigh the disadvantages of open plan work-environments, it provides justification for the global trend' of open plan work-environments. Notwithstanding the above, organizations should be mindful as to how open plan work-environments may impact on its employees' morale and the overall effectiveness of its employees, among other areas. This research study was conducted with the main intent to determine how employees, in a South African dispensation, are influenced by open plan work-environments, particularly in relation to employees' productivity and job satisfaction. This research study was empirical in nature and followed a mixed methods approach whereby data were collected from 32 respondents situated in two engineering firms, in Cape Town, through means of questionnaire-tools. All respondents had to adhere to a strict set of delineation criteria in order to constitute a valid response. It was found that majority of respondents who were situated in open plan work-environments preferred private offices as opposed to open plan offices, especially since it had an adverse influence on employees' concentration, privacy and emotional well-being.

Empirical evaluation of China imports on employment in the South African textile industry

Emmanuel Innocents Edoun, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Edzisani Ellen Netshiozwi, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

Abstract. This paper is set to generate some empirical perspective on the impact of Chinese imports on employment levels in the South African textile industry. Using regression analysis as a method of inquiry, this paper critically assess the relationship that exist between textile imports and employment levels as well as between exchange rates and employment levels. South Africa's imports data, employment data and exchange rate (South African Rand per Chinese Yuan) for the period 1993 to 2011 is used to analyze the relationship between high level of imports from China and employment levels in the industry. Initial findings reveal that an increase in the value of textile imports from China will cause a decline in employment levels in the South African textile industry.

Customer centricity and satisfaction as a key aspect of CRM

Wiesław Breński, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland

Abstract. The growing popularity of the Internet is followed by its extensive use in economy. The phenomenon of widespread development of various services delivered via the Internet can be observed. The Internet serves no more only as a tool for communication, but it actually establishes a foundation of electronic economy. Paper described concept Customer Relationship Management. The CRM main assumptions and components are indicated. Benefits of CRM are explained. CRM systems are classified and key modules of common CRM system are described. 

Entrepreneurial knowledge, personal attitudes, and entrepreneurship intentions among South African Enactus students

Ndivhuho Tshikovhi, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
Richard Shambare, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. This paper investigates how action-based entrepreneurship training influences entrepreneurial knowledge and personal attitudes, which in turn reportedly develop individuals' entrepreneurship intentions. A cohort of students who had undergone social entrepreneurship training under the auspices of Enactus South Africa was studied to determine the relationship between these three key variables associated with entrepreneurship tendencies. The study, in particular, addresses the question of whether practical entrepreneurship training bears any consequences on developing students' personal attitudes, entrepreneurship knowledge, and entrepreneurship intentions. Stratified sampling techniques were utilised to collect data from 355 Enactus South Africa students from the constituent 27 colleges and universities that make up Enactus South Africa. While findings of the study indicated that both entrepreneurial knowledge and personal attitudes have significant influence on entrepreneurship intentions, personal attitudes were observed as having a greater influence on the former. Furthermore, high levels of entrepreneurship knowledge were observed to impact on favourable attitudes towards entrepreneurship.

A methodological framework to study the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture: on example of spiritual leadership

Irena Bakanauskiene, Ph.D., Professor; Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
Rasa Katiliene, Ph.D., Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania

Abstract. The scope and place of modern-day changes pose new challenges for the management of people as organizational resources, requiring particular focus on effective leadership. A structural theoretical approach shows that leaders have a strong influence on the organization's members' perception and behavior through values, views, and assumptions of the leader is the one of the organization's culture features influencing variables. Knowing the features of an organization's culture, shaping business considerations, employees can reveal patterns of behavior. Thus the article suggests a methodological framework, how to identify leadership style influence to organizational culture features. The methodological framework for the study of the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture is illustrated through an example of spiritual leadership based on empirical research, made in Lithuania 2009-2014 year. The topic starts with the theoretical background and analysis of the problem, then the methodology framework for empirical research of the expression of a leadership style in organizational culture is presented and the evidence of research methodology is illustrated on the expression of a spiritual leadership style in organizational culture. Mentioned objects are described in details in previous researches done by authors in 2010-2014. At the end of the article discussion and conclusions are formulated.

Technical efficiency and its determinants: an empirical study on banking sector of Oman

Dharmendra Singh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Modern College of Business and Science, Oman
Bashir Ahmad Fida, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Modern College of Business and Science, Oman

Abstract. The present study aims to investigates the degree of technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies in commercial banks of Oman by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. For the period under study, the contribution of scale inefficiency in overall technical inefficiency has been observed to be higher than pure technical inefficiency .The results related to returns-to-scale emphasize that decreasing returns-to-scale is the major form of scale inefficiency. Study shows that Bank Dhofar and Ahli Bank are consistent in their performance as they are the two most efficient banks throughout the period. Bank Muscat, the largest bank of Oman is suffering from decreasing returns-to-scale. The estimated efficiency scores are further regressed (using tobit model) on a set of explanatory variables, i.e. bank size, profitability, capital adequacy and liquidity. Study reveals that bank size is insignificant; profitability and liquidity are significant positive explanatory variables.

The analysis of labor fluctuation in the Nitra Region of Slovakia

Renáta Machová, Ph.D., Vice Dean, Assistant Professor, J. Selye University, Slovakia
Silvia Tóbiás Kosár, Assistant Professor, J. Selye University, Slovakia
József Poór, Professor, Dr., J. Selye University, Slovakia
Andrej Hevesi, Assistant, J. Selye University, Slovakia

Abstract. Fluctuation in the labor force has been the subject of numerous recently published studies and literature. This study presents the characteristics of the theoretical and practical problems of fluctuation. Our goal is to present the characteristics of labor fluctuation in a selected region via an empirical research conducted among companies. We analyzed fluctuation in different occupational groups, the key characteristics of key-person migration and replacement, the costs of replacing labor, workplace policies and programs relating to the conservation of staff separately. During the examination process of fluctuation problems it was also important for us to separate the analysis of motivational tools used to prevent employee turnover. The study summarizes the specific features of the analyzed factors.

Leadership and transformation in a South African university

Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu, Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa    

Abstract. Politicized South African higher education institutions (HEIs) have influenced leaders to be indecisive, error free, fearful of taking risks, marginalizing resisters, emotional and failing to recognize their personal weaknesses while working well with leaders beyond the university. This study interrogates leaders' capabilities that have the potential to drive transformation at the Durban University of Technology (DUT) in the post-merger and incorporation era. The researcher undertook this study to highlight the prevalence of leadership incapability in the post-merger and incorporation era at DUT which has mainly been caused by leaders failing to take transformative decisions. This study employed a quantitative approach guided by a structured survey questionnaire to a target population of 191 with a response rate of 70%. The questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS generating the reliability coefficient Alpha of 0.947 indicating a high degree of acceptance and consistency of the results. The study findings revealed the highest percentage of the research participants who held opposite views regarding the statement that leaders learn from their mistakes (32%) and that they understand their personal weaknesses (27%), with the highest percentage being undecided (46%). Another major highlight of the study was the highest percentage of the respondents who had a view that leaders work well with other leaders beyond the university (55%) as compared to internal stakeholders (49%). Researchers mention leadership capabilities as only being applicable to higher education institutions in general. This study provides information on leaders' incapability, post-merger and incorporation, which could be of benefit to the university change management specialists in the design of relevant and specific interventions of change with the aim of filling the gaps or preventing bottlenecks identified by the findings. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge in developing countries as there is a dearth of published studies investigating leadership capabilities mishaps in the post-merger and incorporation era at the Universities of Technology.

Do foreign remittances encourage investment in the rural non-farm economy sector? Evidence from Igbos of Southeast Nigeria

Emmanuel Innocents Edoun, Ph.D., Department of Quality and Operations Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Samuel Ezeanyika Ezeanyika, Ph.D., Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imo State University, Nigeria
Charles Mbohwa, Ph.D., Department of Quality and Operations Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. In recent years, foreign remittances have become a major source of external development finance. In the past decade, Nigeria has become the single largest recipient of foreign remittances in Sub-Saharan Africa, receiving between 30 to 60 percent of flows into the region. However, because of the conventional view that the bulk of household income from foreign remittances is used particularly for consumption purposes, their deliberate investment by some recipients in the rural nonfarm economy (RNFE) has not yet undergone rigorous econometric analyzes. The thrust of this paper is to estimate the impact of foreign remittances on the RNFE of the Igbos of Southeast Nigeria, using sample data from foreign remittance-receiving households engaged in rural nonfarm income-yielding investments. Key findings from the regression analysis show that households' ratio of foreign remittances invested in rural nonfarm activities (RNFA) to the total amount of foreign remittances received by them tend to decrease with the increase in remittances received. There is, however, a positive correlation between remittances and expenditure on the rural nonfarm sector. The remittance elasticity for investment in the sector and the marginal foreign remittances share confirm that foreign remittance-receiving households spend a higher proportion of remittances on profit-oriented RNFA.

Comprehensive political risk assessment of South Africa: 2014

Sharlene Barnard, Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Piet Croucamp, Dr., Department of Politics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract. South Africa is classified as a middle-income state with ample supply of resources, a well-developed communication, financial, energy, legal and transport sector, and a stock-exchange ranked among the top twenty-five in the world. The risk factors that arise in South Africa's external environment, such as contracted economic growth in the Eurozone and the consequences of quantitative easing in the USA (the potential outflow of capital from developing markets), are indicators of instability to the economy, but over which the country has minimal jurisdiction. Internal risks have been on the rise in the form of an inflationary current account deficit, declining mining and manufacturing outputs, coupled with escalating corruption in the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive political risk assessment of South Africa based on 12 identified risk indicators. Research for this paper includes various articles, risk reports and wide ranging factual research. South Africa is measured as a medium to moderate risk state.