Design and validation of the Brand Personality Scale in Tourist Destinations

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The new modality caused by COVID-19 has significantly affected tourism, from the decrease in demand and the deterioration of facilities due to lack of budget to the point of becoming unattractive. In response to this, the objective of this research work is to design and validate a scale to measure Brand Personality in Tourist Destinations (BPTD). The results were structured in three phases. In the first phase, an exhaustive search of the bibliography and first version of the instrument were generated. Moreover, a panel of 12 professionals between academics and managers was held, who evaluated the features and content validation by a panel of 7 experts. In the second phase, data collection was carried out with the participation of 998 tourists. In the third phase, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, obtaining a KMO of 0.979 and a p-value of 0.000. The total explained variance of the 21 items grouped in three dimensions represents 87.27%. In the confirmatory analysis, χ2 = 921.57, p = 0.000, RMR = 0.069, GFI = 0.917, AGFI = 0.829, CFI = 0.980, TLI = 0.976, NFI = 0.975, IFI = 0.980 and RMSA = 0.065, with an appropriate internal consistency (performance: α = 0.984; social innovation α = 0.982; honesty α = 0.964). Composite reliability was CR > 0.70 and convergent validity was AVE > 0.5. In conclusion, the values imply an acceptable adjustment, for which the model is adequate, and the scale is valid to be applied in tourism.

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    • Figure 1. Three-dimensional confirmatory model of the BPTD scale
    • Table 1. Sociodemographic profile of the tourist (N = 998)
    • Table 2. Exploratory factor analysis results (N = 998)
    • Table 3. Goodness-of-fit index of the BPTD scale (N=998)
    • Table 4. Content validity, convergent, and discriminant validity
    • Formal Analysis
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Edison Effer Apaza Tarqui
    • Investigation
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Methodology
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Project administration
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Resources
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea, Josue Turpo-Chaparro
    • Validation
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea, Josue Turpo-Chaparro
    • Visualization
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea, Josue Turpo-Chaparro
    • Writing – original draft
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Writing – review & editing
      Jose Joel Cruz-Tarrillo, Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Conceptualization
      Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Supervision
      Karla Liliana Haro-Zea
    • Data curation
      Edison Effer Apaza Tarqui
    • Software
      Edison Effer Apaza Tarqui