Inclusivity and corporate social responsibility in marketing

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Inclusivity and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a community where ethnic diversity and conflict are very low compared to other countries still need to be researched more. This study aims to analyze university students’ awareness of inclusivity and CSR in marketing teaching using a pretest-posttest control group design. Both experimental (n = 138) and control (n = 140) groups are homogeneous regarding nationality, ethnicity, and age. The experimental group was subject to specific training on inclusive products, marketing communication, and CSR, which allowed testing of their perceptions and the training’s effectiveness. The first trial showed that the change in the experimental group was 8%, against 2.5% in the control group. The second trial demonstrated that the change in the experimental group was 30.4%, noting inclusive reasons, and, in the control group, only 6.4%. The third trial found a positive evolution in the experimental group, with more than 8.3% of students choosing the CSR company, and a negative evolution in the control group of –5.6%. These differences were not statistically significant within both groups but significant when comparing the two groups. The results of this study highlight that this homogeneous population does not think about those issues when analyzing businesses, products, or marketing communication. However, when people are submitted to specific training, they become aware and change their perceptions accordingly to what was expected. Thus, one concludes that education for inclusivity and CSR should be part of students’ training, independently of the homogeneity of the social and human environment.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank their students at Universidade Portucalense for accepting that their school tests were used to design and publish this paper.

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    • Table 1. Questionnaire trial 1: Results of choice between two door handles
    • Table 2. Questionnaire trial 2: Results of what the students like more in both ads
    • Table 3. Questionnaire trial 2: Results of what the students like less in non-inclusive ad
    • Table 4. Questionnaire trial 3: Results of choice between two company descriptions
    • Table 5. Mentimeter trial: Results about training effectiveness
    • Conceptualization
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins
    • Data curation
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Formal Analysis
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins
    • Funding acquisition
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Investigation
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins
    • Methodology
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Project administration
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Resources
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Software
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Supervision
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Validation
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins
    • Visualization
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins
    • Writing – original draft
      João M. S. Carvalho
    • Writing – review & editing
      João M. S. Carvalho, Sónia Nogueira, Nayra Martins