Population growth and food security: Evidence from Nigeria

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The average agriculture output growth between 2011–2020, which stood at 3.5% against the backdrop of over 2.6% population growth rate, accounts for the present food insecurity, hunger, and malnutrition in Nigeria. The study aims to examine the impact of population growth on food security in Nigeria with data covering 1986–2020. The study employed two models: the first model analyzed agriculture output as a function of population growth rate. The second model examined the impact of population growth and agriculture productivity on economic growth. The Cochrane-Orcutt iterative method on an ordinary least squared (OLS) was employed. The study results found that population growth had a significant impact on agriculture output. However, the paper further substantiated that economic growth is significantly and positively responsive to changes in agriculture output and population growth rate in Nigeria. Among other things, the study recommended the government consider an increase in budget allocation to the agriculture sector so as to boost food output. Finally, the government may also consider introducing a policy that would encourage small families, thereby reducing the country’s population growth rate.

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    • Figure 1. Trend of food security and population growth in Nigeria
    • Table 1. Structure of food security and population growth in Nigeria (%)
    • Table 2. Results of unit root test
    • Table 3. Model 1
    • Table 4. Model 2
    • Project administration
      John O. Aiyedogbon
    • Supervision
      John O. Aiyedogbon
    • Writing – original draft
      John O. Aiyedogbon, Sarah O. Anyanwu
    • Writing – review & editing
      John O. Aiyedogbon
    • Methodology
      Sarah O. Anyanwu
    • Software
      Sarah O. Anyanwu
    • Visualization
      Sarah O. Anyanwu, Olena Zhuravka
    • Data curation
      Grace Hezekiah Isa, Olena Zhuravka
    • Formal Analysis
      Grace Hezekiah Isa, Yuriy Petrushenko, Olena Zhuravka
    • Resources
      Grace Hezekiah Isa, Olena Zhuravka
    • Validation
      Grace Hezekiah Isa, Yuriy Petrushenko
    • Conceptualization
      Yuriy Petrushenko
    • Investigation
      Yuriy Petrushenko