Changes in the system of country’s population health care depending on the level of providing affordable housing

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This paper is devoted to providing affordable housing as a significant factor in public health management, inclusive growth, and SDG. The purpose is to empirically prove changes in the system of country’s population health care depending on the level of providing affordable housing. The empirical base includes time series and panel data for 27 EU countries during 2011–2019. Due to correlation analysis (Shapiro-Wilk testing, Spearman or Pearson correlation, lags in time), regression analysis, and building a dynamic panel estimation model with Sargan testing in STATA, the study empirically confirmed and formalized the impact of affordable housing funding on changes in the system of country’s population health care. In particular, the study found the dependence between overcrowding level and the share of homeowners with mortgages (a decrease of overcrowding level by an average of 0.61% with a time lag of 2 years due to an increase by 1%); the share of tenants on concessional terms/free (0.41% with a time lag of 3 years); and the share of public spending on housing development (0.25% with a time lag of 3 years). The direct relationship between the overcrowding and mortality from dangerous diseases (tuberculosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, mental and behavioral disorders, diabetes, pneumonia) was also revealed. Public spending on housing under social protection programs (subsidies, etc.) proved to be the least effective. Preference should be given to the development of affordable mortgage lending (faster and greater effect). Generally, it impacts public management decisions in the health care system, social, and housing spheres.

Acknowledgments
The study was funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and performed the results of the project “Economic and mathematical modeling and forecasting, development of methodological and methodological foundations for creating a roadmap for reforming the health care system in Ukraine, taking into account behavioral, social, economic and legal determinants” (Agreement БФ / 24-2021).
This study received funding under the research subsidy of the Department of Applied Social Sciences of the Faculty of Organization and Management of the Silesian University of Technology for the year 2022 (13/020/BK_22/0072).

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    • Figure 1. Bibliometric analysis of publications indexed by the Scopus database according to the search request “public health management and social housing financing” for 1970–2021
    • Figure 2. Clusters of scientific research that are the most closely related to the key request of “public health management and social housing financing”
    • Figure 3. Comparative analysis of the EU countries and Ukraine in terms of overcrowding and mortality from tuberculosis in 2019
    • Figure 4. Comparative analysis of the EU countries and Ukraine in terms of housing overcrowding and AIDS mortality in 2019
    • Figure 5. Comparative analysis of the EU countries and Ukraine in terms of housing overcrowding and mortality from viral hepatitis and their consequences in 2019
    • Figure 6. Comparative analysis of the EU countries and Ukraine by mortality rates from some dangerous diseases in 2019
    • Table 1. Impact of changes in the share of homeowners with mortgage/housing loan on changes in the level of overcrowding
    • Table 2. Impact of changes in the share of tenants on preferential terms/free of charge on changes in the level of overcrowding
    • Table 3. Impact of changes in the share of government spending on housing development and housing as a direction of social protection on changes in the level of overcrowding
    • Table A1. Statistical significance, nature, and strength of the impact of changes in the level of overcrowding on changes in mortality from a number of dangerous diseases (a sample from 27 EU countries for 2011–2019)
    • Table A2. Statistical significance, nature, and strength of the impact of changes in social housing financing on changes in the level of overcrowding (sample from 27 EU countries for 2011–2019)
    • Conceptualization
      Aleksandra Kuzior, Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova, Tetiana Vasylieva, Paulina Brożek
    • Investigation
      Aleksandra Kuzior, Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova, Tetiana Vasylieva
    • Project administration
      Aleksandra Kuzior, Anastasiia Samoilikova
    • Writing – original draft
      Aleksandra Kuzior, Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova, Tetiana Vasylieva, Paulina Brożek
    • Data curation
      Svitlana Zhuchenko
    • Formal Analysis
      Svitlana Zhuchenko
    • Methodology
      Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova, Tetiana Vasylieva
    • Resources
      Svitlana Zhuchenko, Paulina Brożek
    • Software
      Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova
    • Validation
      Svitlana Zhuchenko
    • Visualization
      Svitlana Zhuchenko
    • Writing – review & editing
      Svitlana Zhuchenko, Anastasiia Samoilikova, Tetiana Vasylieva
    • Supervision
      Tetiana Vasylieva