Apprenticeships and sustainable growth of family businesses: A regional assessment

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A practical government policy on apprenticeship is a requirement to continuously advance and encourage the company toward top performance and adaptability for a long-term sustainability. In Nigeria, which has a significant young unemployment problem, apprenticeship has emerged as a key to reducing youth unemployment. Thus, sustainability of family businesses is a source of employment, and continuing apprenticeship practices have also raised the likelihood that an individual will obtain employment in the southern regions of Nigeria. This study aimed to examine how job creation, vocational and technical training, and apprentice competences aid in sustaining family business growth in southern Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey and stratified sampling technique; a sample included 329 apprentices in 48 SMEs in southern regions of Nigeria. Using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, data were analyzed using a normality test, linearity test, and multicollinearity test to ascertain the adequacy of the data. Correlation analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that job creation is related to sustainable family business growth; however, the strength of the correlation, though weak (30.0%), was statistically significant; a significant degree of association also existed between apprentice vocational training and sustainable family business growth; lastly, apprentice competences relate significantly to sustainable family business growth (72.1%, p < 0.05). The study concluded that continuous apprenticeship practices influence the objective of business growth as a pivot for socioeconomic development and a long-term sustainability of family businesses.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to sincerely appreciate the Editor-in-Chief and Reviewer(s) for their helpful comments that, in our view, have helped significantly to improve the quality of the manuscript.

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    • Figure 1. Apprenticeship practices
    • Figure 2. Linearity plot
    • Table 1. Coefficient reliability with Cronbach’s Alpha
    • Table 2. Descriptive statistics of apprenticeship practices and sustainable family business growth
    • Table 3. Multicollinearity tests result
    • Table 4. Correlation results indicating a relationship between job creation and sustainable family business growth
    • Table 5. Correlation results indicating a relationship between vocational and technical training and sustainable family business growth
    • Table 6. Correlation results indicating a relationship between apprentice competences and sustainable family business growth
    • Table A1. Skewness and kurtosis for the dataset normality
    • Conceptualization
      Sunday Eneh
    • Formal Analysis
      Sunday Eneh, John Okongo
    • Funding acquisition
      Sunday Eneh, Adesuyi Olufemi, John Okongo, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Investigation
      Sunday Eneh, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Project administration
      Sunday Eneh, Adesuyi Olufemi, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Writing – original draft
      Sunday Eneh
    • Data curation
      Charles Effiong, Adesuyi Olufemi
    • Methodology
      Charles Effiong, Adesuyi Olufemi
    • Resources
      Charles Effiong, John Okongo
    • Supervision
      Charles Effiong, John Okongo
    • Validation
      Charles Effiong, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Writing – review & editing
      Charles Effiong, Adesuyi Olufemi, John Okongo, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Software
      Adesuyi Olufemi, John Okongo, Mayowa Omosebi
    • Visualization
      Adesuyi Olufemi