Individualism and self-reliance of Generations Y and Z and their impact on working environment: An empirical study across 5 European countries

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In recent years, numerous researches and studies confirm differences between Generations in their values, attitudes, or characteristics. However, the challenge is to get to know the Generation Z, whose individuals are currently entering the labor market for research and practical application. The presented paper aims to expand the knowledge of Generations Y and Z in the field of individualism and self-reliance. This issue is examined concerning independence regarding housing and financial independence to parental help. The aim of the study is an empirical verification of possible similarities and differences between Generations Y and Z. The study is based on an online questionnaire survey. Data were obtained from more than 1,500 respondents of these Generations (born in 1982–2005) in 5 European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and Slovakia). Data are examined using a two-tailed t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and regression analysis. The overall findings of the study indicate intergenerational differences in the issue of independence, with Generation Z, unlike Millennials, becoming more self-sufficient at a younger age. Research has also found that women leave the parental household earlier than men. The paper presents the possible influence of the outputs on the working environment and work motivation of the Generations Y and Z.

Acknowledgment
The paper was created with the support of the project SGS-2020-015 “Research in selected areas of management and marketing of organisations in the context of demographic and technological changes.”

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    • Figure 1. Regression trend of age of leaving parental household in each country (CZE, DAN, NED, POL, and SVK) by the age of birth
    • Figure 2. Regression trend of age of leaving parental household in all countries (CZE, DAN, NED, POL, and SVK) by the age of birth
    • Table 1. Average age (in years) of young people leaving the parental household, 2011–2019
    • Table 2. Distribution of respondents by country, generation, and career status
    • Table 3. Significance of the impact of providing parental financial support on age
    • Table 4. Significance of gender effect on the age of leaving parental household
    • Table 5. Significance of generation effect on the age of leaving parental household
    • Table 6. Linear regression trend data by states
    • Conceptualization
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Data curation
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Formal Analysis
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Funding acquisition
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Investigation
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Methodology
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Project administration
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Resources
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Software
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Supervision
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Validation
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Visualization
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Writing – original draft
      Jiří Kutlák
    • Writing – review & editing
      Jiří Kutlák