Additive economy and new horizons of innovative business development


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The disruptive technologies and cyber-physical production systems are important factors that bring transformations to socio-economic formations. The paper aims to formulate the content, key directions, positive and negative effects of additive economy (AE) in the current transition phase to Industry 4.0. The research method is based on the analysis of structural links in socio-economic systems, where the additive economy potential is realized. The additive economy is treated as a new approach to production technological aspect based on the additive principle of manufacturing and aimed at minimizing the use of primary natural resources for dematerialization of social production. AE is the antithesis of the subtractive economy, which dominates today and uses only a tiny proportion of extracted natural resources. Among the positive effects of AE, there are the reduction in energy intensity of products, dematerialization of production, solidarity of society, economic systems sustainability, and intellectualization of technologies and materials. Among the negative expectations of AE, there are increased information vulnerability of production, risk of losing control over cyber-physical systems, expanding the unification of individuals, and increasing psychological stress. The additive economy is more sustainable than the subtractive economy since it does not require extra components to the production spheres, reduces the resource scarcity, and could satisfy more economic agents’ needs. Therefore, improved production efficiency due to AE promises economic growth acceleration, environmental burden and social risk reduction.

The publication was prepared in the framework of the research projects “Sustainable development and resource security: from disruptive technologies to digital transformation of Ukrainian economy” (№ 0121U100470); Fundamental bases of the phase transition to an additive economy: from disruptive technologies to institutional sociologization of decisions (No. 0121U109557).

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    • Figure 1. Components of transformations of phase transition to the additive economy
    • Figure 2. Some types of modern information products
    • Table 1. Projected effects of additive economy development until 2025
    • Table 2. “Horizons” (expected socio-economic effects) of the additive economy
    • Conceptualization
      Leonid Melnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko
    • Funding acquisition
      Leonid Melnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko
    • Methodology
      Leonid Melnyk, Oleg Tulyakov
    • Supervision
      Leonid Melnyk
    • Writing – original draft
      Leonid Melnyk, Maxim Korneyev
    • Data curation
      Oleksandr Matsenko, Maxim Korneyev
    • Investigation
      Oleksandr Matsenko, Maxim Korneyev
    • Resources
      Oleksandr Matsenko, Maxim Korneyev, Oleg Tulyakov
    • Software
      Oleksandr Matsenko
    • Validation
      Oleksandr Matsenko
    • Visualization
      Oleksandr Matsenko, Oleg Tulyakov
    • Formal Analysis
      Oleksandr Kubatko
    • Project administration
      Oleksandr Kubatko
    • Writing – review & editing
      Oleksandr Kubatko, Oleg Tulyakov