Managing change in nature-based tourism: A decision-making model using linear programming

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In conditions of forced isolation, nature-based tourism meets the needs of safe and comfortable recreation and travel combined with the solution of acute issues of medical treatment and rehabilitation during the pandemic and post-pandemic periods. This study aims to develop a model for decision-making on change management in nature tourism based on the approach of linear economic and mathematical programming. The paper formalized changes in the variability of objective function parameters of the model and the system of its restrictions, following the structure of assets of nature-based tourism, balanced by the sustainability principle. The algorithm for implementing the model includes four stages: collection and processing of relevant data on nature-based tourism; considering changes in the objective function and the system of its limitations; linear programming with variability tests using the simplex method; defining ranges/limits in which decisions are made. The initial data are summarized and averaged based on the primary data analysis on the functioning of sanatoriums and other tourist and recreational facilities in Ukraine. Short-term nature-based tourism is considered, the services of which are classified according to the criterion of the primary purpose of travel: “wow-effect” tourism, sports tourism, health tourism, traditional recreation, and green tourism. The results make it possible to substantiate decisions on changes in recreational land areas and human resources, on the limits of changes in income due to the dynamics of service prices, as well as determine the price range while maintaining income structure and sustainability limits for natural and human assets of nature-based tourism.

Acknowledgment
The paper contains the results of a study conducted under the National Academy of Science of Ukraine’s grant Formation and Use of Natural-Resource Assets of the Recreational and Tourism Sphere (0120U100159) and the Nominal Scholarship of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine for Young Scientists-Doctors of Sciences for 2021 (0121U113482).

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    • Figure 1. Algorithm for change management in the field of nature tourism based on linear programming
    • Table 1. Final iteration of the spreadsheet according to the standard record format in the linear programming model
    • Table 2. Analysis of changes in the price of “wow-effect” of nature tourism services in the final iteration of programming
    • Table 3. Analysis of changes in the price of health and medical services in the final iteration of programming
    • Table 4. Analysis of changes in the constraints of financial assets of “wow-effect” tourism on the final iteration of programming
    • Table 5. Analysis of changes in the limitations of natural assets of “wow-effect” tourism on the final iteration of programming
    • Table A1. Input data for the model of change management in the field of nature-based tourism in Ukraine (conditional example)
    • Table A2. Iterations of linear programming (destination of nature-based tourism specializing in services of “wow-effect” tourism)
    • Table A3. Price variability for traditional recreation services (destination of nature-based “wow-effect” tourism)
    • Table A4. Changes in human assets limitations for “wow-effect” tourism destination at the final iteration of programming
    • Table A5. Price variability for “wow-effect” tourism services (green tourism destination)
    • Table A6. Price variability for sports tourism services (green tourism destination)
    • Table A7. Changes in restrictions on natural assets of green tourism destinations in the final iteration of programming
    • Table A8. Changes in restrictions on human assets of green tourism destinations in the final iteration of programming
    • Table A9. Price variability for “wow-effect” tourism services (destination of health and medical tourism)
    • Table A10. Changes in restrictions on human assets of health and medical tourism destinations in the final iteration of programming
    • Table A11. Generalized results of change management substantiation in the field of nature-based tourism using the model of linear programming
    • Conceptualization
      Hanna Shevchenko, Mykola Petrushenko
    • Formal Analysis
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Funding acquisition
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Investigation
      Hanna Shevchenko, Mykola Petrushenko
    • Methodology
      Hanna Shevchenko, Mykola Petrushenko
    • Project administration
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Resources
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Software
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Supervision
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Validation
      Hanna Shevchenko
    • Visualization
      Hanna Shevchenko, Mykola Petrushenko
    • Writing – original draft
      Hanna Shevchenko, Mykola Petrushenko
    • Data curation
      Mykola Petrushenko
    • Writing – review & editing
      Mykola Petrushenko