Assessment of the population’s quality of life in Kazakhstan during COVID-19: The effectiveness of public policy

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This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Kazakhstan’s public policy during the pandemic related to healthcare, education, and the financial situation of the population by assessing the population’s quality of life (QoL). The study proceeded from the assumption that the effectiveness of state measures can be assessed through the manifestation of citizens’ reaction to the ongoing public policy, i.e., satisfaction with its results. The source base was the Bureau of National Statistics and the Adilet information and legal base covering 2020–2021. During the pandemic, the population’s satisfaction with their material provision, health, education, and living conditions decreased but not critically. The population’s QoL in Kazakhstan is satisfactory. Satisfaction among rural residents with their life (70.7%) and conditions (63.7%) is higher than among urban residents (56.1% and 49.8%, respectively). One-third of the population reported improved well-being and only 6.5% reported a deterioration. The high number of citizens satisfied with their QoL indicates the effectiveness of Kazakhstani public policy. It is the result not only of the implementation of temporary anti-crisis measures of government through program, organizational, and economic mechanisms during the pandemic but systematic work on modernization of the social, medical, and educational systems from 2019. The practical value of the study is the development of recommendations for the development of public policy in the field of improving QoL and the development of anti-crisis management in Kazakhstan.

Acknowledgments
This study is supported by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (targeted funding program BR10965247 “Study of factors, features and dynamics of demographic processes, migration, urbanization in Kazakhstan, development of digital maps and forecasts”).

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    • Figure 1. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with their life and its conditions, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 2. Kazakhstanis’ assessment of their level of material support, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 3. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with their financial situation and economic situation in the family, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 4. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with the situation in their place of residence, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 5. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with healthcare services, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 6. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with education services, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 7. Kazakhstanis’ satisfaction with the quality of public services, %, 2020–2021
    • Figure 8. Confidence of Kazakhstanis in their own safety, %, 2020–2021
    • Table 1. Parameters used to describe respondents’ opinions about their quality of life
    • Conceptualization
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Gulashar Doskeyeva, Eugenia de Matos Pedro
    • Data curation
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Funding acquisition
      Amangeldi Mukayev
    • Investigation
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Project administration
      Amangeldi Mukayev
    • Visualization
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Zaira Satpayeva
    • Writing – original draft
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Writing – review & editing
      Amangeldi Mukayev, Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova, Gulashar Doskeyeva, Eugenia de Matos Pedro
    • Formal Analysis
      Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Methodology
      Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Resources
      Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Software
      Zaira Satpayeva
    • Validation
      Zaira Satpayeva, Dana Kangalakova
    • Supervision
      Gulashar Doskeyeva, Eugenia de Matos Pedro