Technostress, transformational leadership, and academic performance of university students in South Colombia

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The study aims to establish the moderation of transformational leadership in the relationship between technostress and academic performance of university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was of a quantitative nature with the support of the deductive method and of an explanatory correlational type. Technostress was measured with an instrument adapted from the RED-Technostress scale; transformational leadership was measured with an instrument adapted from the short version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X model; and academic performance was measured with a scale developed by the authors. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling was used, and the constructs were evaluated using SEM and SPSS AMOS software. In total, 245 questionnaires were administered. The results show a negative and significant relationship between transformational leadership and technostress (–0.338; p < 0.00), a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership and academic performance (0.472; p < 0.00), a negative and significant direct relationship between technostress and academic performance (–0.553; p < 0.00), and moderation of transformational leadership of the relationship between technostress and academic performance (–0.159; p < 0.00). Thus, teacher leadership moderates the relationship between technostress and students’ academic performance, i.e., a high level of transformational leadership practices of teachers allows a lower impact of technostress and its manifestations on the students’ academic performance. Likewise, technostress manifested by students was relatively low, lower than the levels expected and evidenced in other studies carried out in the business environment, possibly explained by their age and their being in a context of continuous learning.

Acknowledgment
The authors thank the Universidad Surcolombiana for their support in the development of this study.

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    • Figure 1. AFC technostress
    • Figure 2. AFC transformational leadership
    • Table 1. Operationalization of variables
    • Table 2. Demographic characteristics
    • Table 3. Descriptive statistics
    • Table 4. Reliability and validity
    • Table 5. Analysis of theoretically hypothesized relationships
    • Conceptualization
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia
    • Data curation
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez
    • Formal Analysis
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez
    • Investigation
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez, Diego Bermeo Castro
    • Methodology
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia
    • Resources
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez, Diego Bermeo Castro
    • Software
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia
    • Supervision
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia
    • Validation
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez, Diego Bermeo Castro
    • Writing – original draft
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia
    • Writing – review & editing
      Juan Manuel Andrade Navia, Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez, Diego Bermeo Castro
    • Visualization
      Elías Ramírez Plazas, Juan Camilo Ramírez