Consumption trends of milk and dairy products in Slovakia and its comparison with other V4 countries

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Milk consumption is a very important part of consumers’ daily diet due to its positive health effect. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the market of milk and dairy products. The paper analyzes the development of milk consumption in V4 countries, which was described by using regression functions. The data were obtained from the statistical offices of chosen countries. Based on the achieved results it was found that in Slovakia and Hungary milk consumption is very low, but in the Czech Republic and Poland consumption is recorded in the range of recommended doses and is sufficient. Looking to the future, based on the described trend of consumption, it is possible to assume that the situation in the Slovak Republic will be accompanied by unfavorable developments and in comparison with other V4 countries, Slovakia will consume the least milk and dairy products per capita. Moreover, a questionnaire survey orientated on the level of milk consumption and consumer behavior was conducted on the sample of 518 respondents. Average Slovak consumers consume daily 1 glass of milk, 20 g of cheese, 70 g of curds, and 250 g of sour-milk or other dairy product. Depending on the level of consumption, 3 consumer segments were defined for which different consumer behavior was identified, especially in the issue of factor assessment. In general, however, it is concluded that the quality and price of milk and dairy products are crucial for consumers to make their choice.

Acknowledgment
This paper is supported by the Operational Program Integrated Infrastructure within the project: Demand-driven research for the sustainable and innovative food, Drive4SIFood 313011V336, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund.

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    • Figure 1. Comparison of the average total consumption of milk and dairy products in the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary – per capita and year in kg
    • Figure 2. Comparison of recommended and real consumption of milk and dairy products in the Slovak Republic in 1990 and 2019
    • Figure 3. Differences in the assessment of the reasons for low consumption of milk and dairy products
    • Figure 4. Annual consumption of milk and dairy products
    • Figure 5. Average consumption for segment 1
    • Figure 6. Average consumption for segment 2
    • Figure 7. Average consumption for segment 3
    • Figure 8. Differences in the assessment of factors determining the level of consumption of milk and dairy products
    • Table A1. Composition of cow’s milk (per 100 g of cow’s milk)
    • Table A2. Structure of respondents involved in the consumer survey
    • Table A3. Consumption of milk and dairy products in individual segments
    • Table A4. Demographic structure of consumers by segments
    • Table A5. Reasons for consumption and respect for consumer health principles in individual segments
    • Table A6. Factor loadings from Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA)
    • Table A7. Differences in the assessment of factors determining the level of consumption of milk and dairy products by segment
    • Conceptualization
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík
    • Data curation
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík, Luboš Smutka, Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová
    • Investigation
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík, Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová
    • Methodology
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík, Luboš Smutka, Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová
    • Resources
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová
    • Writing – original draft
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík, Luboš Smutka, Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová
    • Writing – review & editing
      Ľubica Kubicová, Kristína Predanócyová, Zdenka Kádeková
    • Supervision
      Ľubica Kubicová
    • Validation
      Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík
    • Formal Analysis
      Peter Šedík, Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová
    • Software
      Peter Šedík
    • Project administration
      Luboš Smutka, Zdenka Kádeková
    • Visualization
      Zdenka Kádeková, Ingrida Košičiarová