The impact of wise capital on the balanced performance of small enterprises in Iraq

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This study aims to examine the impact of wise capital on the performance of small enterprises in Iraq. Inference, innovation, social responsibility and independence are considered as wise capital dimensions. On the other hand, the financial dimension, customer dimension, learning and growth, and the operational dimension are treated as measures of enterprise performance. The study uses a sample of 207 respondents. Factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to estimate the results. The results of the study indicate that two dimensions of wise capital, innovation and independence, have significant negative impacts on different measures of enterprise performance, but there is no evidence that inference and social responsibility affect the performance of enterprises in Iraq. This study has several contributions and implications. It contributes to the literature on wise capital and performance of small enterprises. It provides an opportunity for policy makers, regulators, academicians, and entrepreneurs to gain insight into the policy measures and remedies needed to improve the performance of small enterprises in Iraq.

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    • Figure 1. Research model
    • Figure 2. Confirmatory factor analysis
    • Figure 3. Cronbach Alpha, Roh_A, Average Variance Extracted, and Composite Reliability
    • Figure 4. Structural equation modeling
    • Table 1. Summary of industrial statistics results for small enterprises for 2015–2018
    • Table 2. Sample and sampling adequacy
    • Table 3. Validity and reliability for constructs
    • Table 4. Discriminant validity
    • Table 5. Item wise effect on variables
    • Table 6. Structural model
    • Conceptualization
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Data curation
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Formal Analysis
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Funding acquisition
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Investigation
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Methodology
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Project administration
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Resources
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Software
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Supervision
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Validation
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Visualization
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Writing – original draft
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi
    • Writing – review & editing
      Amel Mahmood Ali AL-Obaidi