Pull environment of migration in the EU countries: Migration vector from Ukraine

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The growing Ukrainian migration towards EU countries determines the need for evaluation of pull factors shaping their environment to regulate these processes better. The study aims to assess the EU’s pull environment attracting migrants, and evaluate the elasticity of Ukrainian total and labor migration to the change of social and economic factors in EU countries. The data are collected for the period from 2005 to 2018. The method involves weighting the indicators and sub-indices with the following calculating partial and integral indices of the pull environment of migration for selected EU countries (the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy, Portugal, Greece, and Spain) and the EU-28. During 2005–2018, the integral level of pull environment of migration in the EU-28 was above average, whereas the most attractive countries for external migrants were Germany, the Czech Republic, Spain, and Italy. In terms of the intensity of total migration from Ukraine in 2018, Poland (236.06 departures per 1,000 Ukrainians), Hungary (73.6), Germany (12.6), and Italy (7.3) are among the main destinations. While the intensity of Ukrainian migration is high, its growth rate depends on the time lag (different elasticities in the medium and long run). The integral analysis of the pull environment has a practical value allowing to conduct migration intensity and elasticity evaluation, as well as the cross-country pull-factor analysis (pull strength) for substantiating the improvement of regulatory and methodological provisions of migration policies for both Ukraine and the hosting EU states.

Acknowledgment
The study has been conducted within the framework of applied research “Mechanisms of the proactive policy for reducing social vulnerability of the population (based on the Carpathian region of Ukraine)” (M. Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Reg. No. 0121U112014, 2021–2023).

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    • Figure 1. Significance of the components of the pull environment of migration (five groups of indicators) in some EU countries
    • Figure 2. Intensity of total and labor migration of the population from Ukraine to the EU, 2010–2018
    • Table A1. Indicators of the pull environment of population migration
    • Table B1. Weighting coefficients of indicator significance of the migration pull environment
    • Table C1. Time series of the indices for groups of indicators (Zktn) and integral indices (Itnpull) of the pull environment of migration in EU countries
    • Table D1. Intensity of population migration from Ukraine to selected EU countries, 2010–2018
    • Table E1. Intensity elasticity of Ukrainian total and labor migration in relation to the change of social and economic pull factors in EU countries
    • Conceptualization
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska, Taras Vasyltsiv, Olha Ilyash
    • Data curation
      Olha Mulska
    • Formal Analysis
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska
    • Investigation
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska, Volodymyr Zaychenko, Taras Vasyltsiv, Olha Ilyash
    • Methodology
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska
    • Visualization
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska, Volodymyr Zaychenko, Taras Vasyltsiv
    • Writing – original draft
      Olha Mulska, Taras Vasyltsiv
    • Writing – review & editing
      Olha Mulska, Olha Levytska
    • Supervision
      Taras Vasyltsiv, Olha Ilyash