The mediating role of engagement in the relationship between equal opportunities and employee performance


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This study aimed to explore the relationship between employee engagement, equal opportunities, and employee performance in Bahraini retail businesses. Using a cross-sectional survey, data were collected from 231 employees and analyzed via SPSS and Smart-PLS, uncovering significant results. Out of the 249 participants invited to the survey, 231 responded. All the variables of the study showed different effects, with equal opportunity and employee engagement (EO → EE) considered the strongest hypotheses in this study at the significance level of 0.01 (β = 0.722, = 0.724, SD = 0.070, t = 10.324, p = 0.000), with f2 = 1.087 above 0.15 and less than 0.35, which was considered a high effect size and strongly supported the hypothesis proposed by the researcher. All hypotheses were supported. The R2 values of independent variables were above 38% for the variance of employee performance, which is considered an excellent fit to the data as evidenced by the squared multiple correlation R2 values for the dependent variables. Finally, EO → EE → JP mediating role indirectly affects JP through EO = 24%, which is considered an excellent effect size.
The recent study confirmed a strong positive link between equal opportunities and employee performance, with employee engagement acting as a significant mediator. This suggests that promoting equal opportunities can boost performance, especially when coupled with employee involvement. These findings are important for HRM experts and executives, as they indicate that prioritizing fairness and fostering participation can enhance productivity.

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    • Figure 1. Conceptual framework
    • Figure 2. A simple bar graph representing the study variable’s µ and SD
    • Figure 3. Assessment of measurement model of the study
    • Figure 4. Indirect effect
    • Table 1. Mean ± SD and rank for the variables
    • Table 2. Reliability and composite reliability
    • Table 3. Convergent validity analysis
    • Table 4. Discriminant validity analysis
    • Table 5. Coefficient of determination result R2
    • Table 6. f-square
    • Table 7. Mean, STDEV, t-values, p-values, decision
    • Table 8. Indirect effect
    • Table 9. Mean, STDEV, t-values, p-values, decision for Indirect effect
    • Conceptualization
      Ali Ateeq
    • Data curation
      Ali Ateeq
    • Formal Analysis
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    • Funding acquisition
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    • Investigation
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    • Methodology
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    • Project administration
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    • Resources
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    • Software
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    • Supervision
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    • Visualization
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    • Writing – original draft
      Ali Ateeq
    • Writing – review & editing
      Ali Ateeq