Prognosticating job satisfaction and morale determinants of public Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) educators


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Rewards are a function of job satisfaction and morale. As a result, it is generally accepted that dissatisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards offered by the employer results in employee reduced job satisfaction and morale. This paper endeavors to contribute to an understanding of the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards on the job satisfaction and resultant morale of employees in an organization. The paper focuses on a case study organization that adds value in the South African context. The paper reviews theoretical and empirical rewards literature and their relationship with the job satisfaction and morale of employees (n = 265). A quantitative research design approach which is rarely used in this type of research was adopted. A self-administered Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was utilized in collecting data. The JDI measures people’s satisfaction with five (5) different aspects of the job, which are detailed in this paper. Data were processed using Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. The study revealed that both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards significantly influenced the job satisfaction and morale of public TVET educators in Western Cape public TVET institutions. Besides extrinsic rewards such as pay and bonuses, intrinsic rewards such as the job itself, supervision, career progression opportunities and relationships among principals and staff, and among educators and learners were found to be also instrumental in enhancing the job satisfaction and morale of educators.

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    • Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the theoretical framework
    • Table 1. Descriptive statistics for dimensions of job satisfaction
    • Table 2. Deviation contrast
    • Table 3. Extrinsic reward satisfaction scale
    • Table 4. The Pearson correlation matrix for dimensions of job satisfaction
    • Table 5. Pearson’s product moment correlation
    • Table 6. Inferential statistics for correlations of independent variable and job satisfaction