E-government as a tool to improve the efficiency of public administration: The case of Kazakhstan

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Digitalization contributed to the modernization of public administration, particularly e-government development. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of e-government in improving the efficiency of public administration in Kazakhstan. The research methods are comparative, economic-statistical, and qualitative content analysis. The sources of statistical data were the Bureau of National Statistics, the Committee of public services, the e-government portal, and reports of international organizations and national development institutions. The study determined that e-government is a modern paradigm of public administration that contributes to the efficiency of public administration; its development and efficiency are significantly influenced by financial, economic, technological, and legal factors. Kazakhstan has a high level of e-government development. The e-government development portal in Kazakhstan has contributed to improving public administration, especially during the pandemic. However, e-government requires further development, as its functioning has various issues (low degree of information relevance, insufficient portal filling, and low share of automated functions). At the same time, the readiness of public administration organizations for digital transformation is medium. The study proposes recommendations for Kazakhstan’s e-government development to improve public administration, mainly developing technological infrastructure and digital human capital. The results can contribute to the further e-government development in Kazakhstan and enrich the theoretical base in increasing the efficiency of public administration in the context of digital transformation.

Acknowledgments
This study is supported by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant “Priorities and mechanisms of inclusive regional development of Kazakhstan in the context of overcoming the economic recession,” IRN AP09259004).

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    • Figure 1. Stages of e-government development in Kazakhstan
    • Table 1. Classification of services provided by e-government
    • Table 2. Indicators used in the study
    • Table 3. E-Government Development Index of Kazakhstan, 2003–2022
    • Table 4. Distribution of users of e-government portal services, %, 2015–2021
    • Table 5. The purposes for the use of the Internet by Kazakhstani organizations to communicate with government agencies, units, 2016–2021
    • Table 6. Performance indicators of Kazakhstan’s e-government platform, 2018–2021
    • Table 7. Indicators of the public administration system of Kazakhstan for the e-government platform development, 2018–2021
    • Table 8. Indicators of ICT development of public administration organizations, 2019–2021
    • Conceptualization
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Samal Tazhiyeva
    • Data curation
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Zaira Satpayeva
    • Formal Analysis
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Zaira Satpayeva
    • Funding acquisition
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Samal Tazhiyeva
    • Investigation
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Samal Tazhiyeva, Gulmira Nurseiytova
    • Project administration
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva
    • Resources
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Samal Tazhiyeva, Gulmira Nurseiytova
    • Validation
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Zaira Satpayeva
    • Writing – original draft
      Shynar Orazgaliyeva, Zaira Satpayeva
    • Methodology
      Zaira Satpayeva
    • Software
      Zaira Satpayeva
    • Visualization
      Zaira Satpayeva
    • Writing – review & editing
      Zaira Satpayeva, Samal Tazhiyeva, Gulmira Nurseiytova
    • Supervision
      Samal Tazhiyeva