Organizational competitiveness in NGOs: An empirical study of Jordan


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Non-governmental organizations form a vital part of the social fabric in contemporary societies. They provide services and support to marginalized groups, enhance advocacy and awareness of social and environmental issues, and influence public policies. Given the lack of studies on non-governmental organizations operating in Jordan, it is crucial to understand their situations and shed the light on their methods to gain a competitive advantage. This study aims to analyze the mediation and sequential moderation linking the advantages of dynamic capabilities, differentiated strategies, social capital, common goals, and organization learning to produce competitive advantage from the perspective of strategy and organizational capacity. The study sample consisted of 100 employees working in non-governmental organizations in Jordan, who were selected in a simple random way.
The findings reveal the factors that can influence business competitiveness by developing dynamic capabilities, differential strategic effects, and accumulating social capital. The study supports the organizational idea of learning to compete by emphasizing internal management practices (e.g., common goals, purposes, and social capital) and external attributes (e.g., differential strategies and dynamic capabilities). Finally, Jordanian companies should improve the links between their social capital, common goals, and dynamic capabilities to become competitive.

The study is funded by Alhussein Bin Talal University, fund decision (288/2022).

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    • Figure 1. Theoretical framework
    • Figure 2. SEM results
    • Table 1. Demographics
    • Table 2. KMO test
    • Table 3. Factor loadings, composite reliability, and convergent validity
    • Table 4. Discriminant validity analysis and multicollinearity test
    • Table 5. Cross loadings
    • Table 6. Structural model results
    • Conceptualization
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Formal Analysis
      Khalid M. Alomari, Jihad Farajat
    • Investigation
      Khalid M. Alomari, Jihad Farajat, Hamza Alaodat
    • Methodology
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Project administration
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Resources
      Khalid M. Alomari, Jihad Farajat
    • Software
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Supervision
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Validation
      Khalid M. Alomari
    • Writing – review & editing
      Khalid M. Alomari, Jihad Farajat
    • Funding acquisition
      Jihad Farajat, Hamza Alaodat
    • Writing – original draft
      Jihad Farajat, Hamza Alaodat
    • Data curation
      Hamza Alaodat
    • Visualization
      Hamza Alaodat