Invisible barriers: Effects of glass ceiling on women’s career progression in Nepalese commercial banks


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Eliminating gender prejudice in job advancement is crucial to organizational success. The study aims to analyze the impact of invisible barriers (corporate culture and corporate practices) on the promotion of women working in Nepalese commercial banks. Structural equation modeling and path analysis have examined how the glass ceiling factors affect women’s career progression. The study’s targeted population consisted of female middle-level managers. It used convenience sampling to collect information from 288 female middle-level managers. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett’s tests for sphericity were used to test the study’s external validity. Construct reliability tests and average variance extracted tests were used to evaluate the convergent validity of the latent variables. Heterotrait-monotrait ratio test was used to assess the discriminant validity of the independent components. The result revealed that the corporate culture with seven observable items (β = –0.313; p < 0.05) and corporate practices with nine observable items (β = –0.507; p < 0.05) had a negative and statistically significant impact on women’s career progression in Nepal, accounting for approximately 64.0% of the variation. For organizations to be moral and effective, gender stereotypes regarding promotions must be eliminated. The study’s findings assist policymakers in understanding how the glass ceiling affects women’s promotion in businesses and recognizing discrimination based on gender to make promotional decisions impartial.

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    • Figure 1. Conceptual framework
    • Figure 2. The study model
    • Table 1. Respondent demographics
    • Table 2. Cronbach’s alpha
    • Table 3. Internal validities statistics
    • Table 4. Parameter estimates of the regression routes
    • Table 5. Remarks on study hypotheses
    • Conceptualization
      Indira Shrestha, Binod Ghimire, Bharat Rai
    • Formal Analysis
      Indira Shrestha, Rewan Kumar Dahal
    • Methodology
      Indira Shrestha, Rewan Kumar Dahal, Bharat Rai
    • Project administration
      Indira Shrestha
    • Resources
      Indira Shrestha, Rewan Kumar Dahal, Binod Ghimire, Bharat Rai
    • Supervision
      Indira Shrestha, Rewan Kumar Dahal
    • Writing – original draft
      Indira Shrestha
    • Writing – review & editing
      Indira Shrestha, Rewan Kumar Dahal, Binod Ghimire, Bharat Rai
    • Data curation
      Rewan Kumar Dahal, Binod Ghimire
    • Software
      Rewan Kumar Dahal, Bharat Rai
    • Validation
      Rewan Kumar Dahal, Binod Ghimire, Bharat Rai
    • Investigation
      Binod Ghimire