The interconnections of workplace spirituality, mindfulness, subjective well-being, and task performance: A study using structural equation modeling


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The wellness of employees is one of the most important aspects of a successful business. Therefore, workplace spirituality, mindfulness, and subjective well-being are highly valued by businesses. This study examined the relationship between workplace spirituality, mindfulness, and subjective well-being on task performance. Online responses from 394 Saudi Arabians gainfully employed in different industries were randomly gathered using four standardized questions. The respondents’ gender, age, experience levels, and industries were diverse, which created a wide and diverse sample. The study looked at common method bias using Harman’s single-factor test. With a total variance of 25.86%, the measured value is below the widely recommended 50% limit. This demonstrated that common method bias had no significant effect. Since all the fit indices have robust fit, the proposed model qualifies for conducting structural equation modeling. The results revealed a significant positive relationship, at a 0.01 level, between spirituality and subjective well-being (t = 3.77, < 0.05) and between spirituality and task performance (t = 3.27, < 0.05). In addition, a significant positive relationship was found between mindfulness and subjective well-being (t = 3.48, < 0.05) and mindfulness and task performance (t = 4.16, < 0.05). Another significant positive relationship existed between subjective well-being and task performance (t = 4.02, < 0.05). This indicates that subjective well-being and mindfulness reinforce employee performance. Also, workplace spirituality and mindfulness enhance both subjective well-being and performance. This finding provides additional evidence and opportunities to address issues related to employee performance.

This study is funded by Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University under a project numbered PSAU/2023/1444.

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    • Figure 1. Initial model
    • Figure 2. Final model
    • Table 1. Demographics of the sample
    • Table 2. Descriptive statistics and correlation
    • Table 3. Factor analysis results
    • Table 4. Convergent validity
    • Table 5. Discriminant validity
    • Table 6. Data fit
    • Table 7. Test of tenability of hypotheses
    • Conceptualization
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti, Sulphey M. M.
    • Data curation
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti, Sulphey M. M.
    • Formal Analysis
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti, Sulphey M. M.
    • Investigation
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti
    • Resources
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti, Sulphey M. M.
    • Software
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti
    • Supervision
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti, Sulphey M. M.
    • Visualization
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti
    • Writing – original draft
      Hatim Abdullah Alruwayti
    • Methodology
      Sulphey M. M.
    • Project administration
      Sulphey M. M.
    • Writing – review & editing
      Sulphey M. M.