The preferred leadership styles in vocational training corporations: Case of Jordan

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The study aims to identify the leadership styles (democratic, authoritative, autocratic, laissez-faire, transformational, and transactional) practiced by trainers at the Vocational Training Corporation as perceived by the female trainees in Jordan. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected by the questionnaire from respondents (n = 105 female trainees) selected by the simple randomization sampling and representing 50% of the population (n = 210). Among the questionnaires sent, only 104 were received and declared valid for statistical analysis. Major findings indicated that the democratic leadership style was mostly preferable by female trainees, where rated top by respondents (M = 4.50), followed by the transformational style (M = 4.23), and the authoritative style was rated the lowest (M = 2.58) compared with the autocratic, laissez-faire and transactional leadership styles. Thus, to keep increasing the development of training programs and obtain positive feedback for trainees, both trainers and managers of the Vocational Training Corporation necessarily need to practice appropriate leadership styles, develop a high level of learning and benefits.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Al-Balqa Applied University in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Institute of Public Administration in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for all kinds of support and providing us with time and access to the research resources.

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    • Table 1. Distribution of participants by demographics
    • Table 2. Pearson correlation results
    • Table 3. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients
    • Table 4. Means and standard deviations of respondents’ estimates of leadership styles in descending order of means
    • Table 5. Means and standard deviations of respondents’ responses to items measuring the democratic style in descending order of means
    • Table 6. Means and standard deviations of respondents’ responses to items measuring the authoritative style in descending order of means
    • Table 7. Means and standard deviations of respondents’ responses to items measuring the autocratic style in descending order of means
    • Table 8. Means and standard deviations of respondents’ responses to items measuring the laissez-faire style in descending order of means
    • Table 9. Means and standard deviations of respondent responses to items measuring the transformational style in descending of means
    • Table 10. Means and standard deviations of respondent responses to items measuring the transactional style in descending order of means
    • Conceptualization
      Akif Al-Khasawneh, Malek Elayan
    • Data curation
      Akif Al-Khasawneh
    • Methodology
      Akif Al-Khasawneh, Malek Elayan
    • Resources
      Akif Al-Khasawneh
    • Supervision
      Akif Al-Khasawneh, Haitham Eyadat, Malek Elayan
    • Validation
      Akif Al-Khasawneh, Haitham Eyadat, Malek Elayan
    • Visualization
      Akif Al-Khasawneh
    • Writing – original draft
      Akif Al-Khasawneh
    • Writing – review & editing
      Akif Al-Khasawneh
    • Formal Analysis
      Haitham Eyadat
    • Project administration
      Haitham Eyadat, Malek Elayan
    • Software
      Haitham Eyadat
    • Funding acquisition
      Malek Elayan